Archive | November 2013

The Simple Past Tense

The Simple Past (by Kidovatov)

The simple past explains an event, which happened in the simple form and also known the time of the events.

They, we, I, you

+

V2

He, she, it

Note that V2 (second Verb) is only used in The Simple Past. There are two types of verb: regular verbs and irregular verbs. To change into regular verbs, simply add –ed or -d in the end of certain verbs. For irregular verbs, however you must memorize the change.

Regular verbs

 

Irregular verbs

V1

 

V2

 

V1

 

V2

to add -> added to begin -> began
to annoy -> annoyed to bite -> bit
to convey -> conveyed to forget -> forgot
to weary -> wearied to get -> got
to beg -> begged to go -> went
to travel -> travelled to lay -> laid
  • Tells events in the past

Michele Pisante, the new world Grand Master of Shokan, crowded over his victory

Monica saw a good film yesterday

Mikhail went to Dmitrovgrad last week

They came here last night

 

Read this short passage, which contains Simple Past. Pay close attention to the verbs in italics. Each of these verbs tells us what happened.

 

Please Send Me a Card

 

Postcards always spoil my holidays. Last summer, I went to Italy. I visited museums and sat in public gardens. A friendly waiter taught me a few words of Italian. Then he lent me a book. I read a few lines, but I did not understand a word. Every day I thought about postcards. My holidays passed quickly, but I did not send any cards to my friends. On the last day I made a big decision. I got up early and bought thirty-seven cards. I spent the whole day in my room, but I did not write a single card!

Comprehension Precis and Composition

Answer these question in not more than 50 words.

  1. Do postcards always spoil the writer’s holidays or not?
  2. Where did he spend his holidays last summer?
  3. What did he think about every day?
  4. Did he send any cards di to his friends or not?
  5. How many cards did he buy on the last day?
  6. Where did he stay all day?
  7. Did he write any cards or not?

 

Special Difficulties

He lent me a book.

Instead of saying:   We can say:
He lent me a book He lent a book to me
He sent me a card He sent a card to me
He passed me the salt He passed The salt to me
She bought me a tie She bought a tie for me
She made me a cake She made a cake for me

 

Write each of the following sentences in a different way:

  1. He paid the shop-keeper some money.
  2. He did me a big favour.
  3. She showed her husband her new hat.
  4. I owe him a lot of money.
  5. Pass the mustard to your father.

Word Order, Simple Present and Continuous

Simple Present Tense & Simple Continuous Tense (by kidovatov)

Tense, is a verb form, which tells the time (whether action or condition is done now, in the past or future). The verb itself simply changes based on the time, which is preceded.

 

  1. Simple Present Tense

They, We, I, You       + V1

She, He, It                  + V1    + s

 

For third person, notice that:

Seizan (japanese male name) = he

Christie = she

Oleg and Egor = they

I and Dima = we

You and Daniil = You (plural)

 

to buy -> buys   to fix -> fixes
to play -> plays   to discuss -> discusses
             
to fly -> flies   to do -> does
to study -> studies   to go -> goes
             
to use -> uses   to help -> helps
to change -> changes   to speak -> speaks

 

a)     Used for daily activities (habits)

  • Pavel goes to school every day
  • Alexandr usually eats an egg for breakfast

b)      Tells the general truth

  • A week has seven days
  • The sun rises in the east

 

subject

(they, we, i, you)

+

frequently, rarely, ever,

often, never, always,

sometimes, seldom

+

v1

(go, listen,

feel, stay)

 

subject

(he, she it)

+

frequently, rarely, ever,

often, never, always,

sometimes, seldom

+

v1

(goes, listens,

feels, stays)

 

  1. Simple Continuous Tense

Subject + TO BE (is, am, are) + Verb-ing

He, she, it                   + is

I                                   + am

They, We, You           + are

a)     Tells an action, which is done right now

  • Dmitry and Irina are studying Italian now (they)

b)     Explains the temporary condition

  • She is reading now, but she will write soon

c)      Used for future activity, which is really happened positively

  • I am writing again in a few weeks

 

 

To apprehend the purposes and the differences between simple present and simple continuous tense, here is served a passage, read the passage two or three times until you really understand:

 

 

From this part until the end of material, taken from the book L.G Alexander (p15-16)

~ Practice & Progress

Breakafst or Lunch?

 

It was Sunday. I never get up early on Sundays. I sometimes stay in bed until lunch time. Last Sunday I got up very late. I looked out of the window. It was dark outside. ‘What a day!’ I thought. “It’s raining again.” Just then, the telephone rang. It was my aunt Lucy, “I’ve just arrived by train,” she said. “I’m coming to see you.”

“But I’m still having breakfast,” I said.

“What are you doing?” she asked.

“I’m having breakfast,” I repeated.

“Dear me,” she said. “Do you always get up so late? It’s one o’clock!”

 

Key Structures

Now, Often & Always

Now   Often and Always
These sentences are from the passage:
It’s raining I never get up early on Sundays
I’m coming to see you I sometimes stay in bed until lunch time
I’m still having breakfast Do you always get up so late?
Here are some more sentences:
He is still sleeping He rarely gets up before 10 o’clock
We are enjoying our lunch We frequently have lunch at this restaurant
I’m reading in bed Do you ever read in bed?

 

Special Difficulties

Instead of saying: We can say:
It is a terrible day! What a terrible day!
This is beautiful picture! What a beautiful picture!

 

The word order in simple statements

A statement tells us about something. All the sentences in the passage are statements. Each of these statements contains one idea. Each statement tells us about one thing. A statement that tells us about one thing is a simple statement.

The order of the words in a statement is very important. Look at these two statements. they both contain the same words but they don’t mean the same thing:

 

The policeman arrested the thief.

The thief arrested the policeman.

 

A simple statement can have six parts, but it does not always have so many. Study the order of the words in the following columns. note that column 6 (When?) can be at the beginning or at the end of a statement.

6 1 2 3 4 5 6
When? Who?

Which?

What?

Action Who?

Which?

What?

How? Where? When?
Last week I went To the theatre.
I had A very good seat.
They Were talking Loudly.

 

You will use the seven columns again for this exercise. There is a line under each word or group of words in the statements below. The words are not in the right order. Arrange them correctly in the seven columns. Look at this example:

I last year to Russia went.

The correct order is : I (who) went (action) to Russia (where) last year (when).

or Last year i went to Russia.

 

Exercise

1. Games – played – yesterday – in their room – the children – quietly.

2. A tree – in the corner of the garden – he – planted.

3. The little boy – an apple – this morning – ate – greedily – in the kitchen.

4. A new school – built – they – in our village – last year.

5. She – a letter from her brother – last week – received.

 

 

Exercise

Note the position of the words in italics in these sentences:

  1. She answers my letters (rarely)
  2. We work after six o’clock (never)
  3. The shops close on Saturday afternoons (always)
  4. Do you go to work by car? (always)
  5. Our teacher collects our copybooks (frequently)
  6. We spend our holidays abroad (sometimes)
  7. I buy gramophone records (often)
  8. Do you buy gramophone records? (ever)

 

Exercise

Write these sentences again. Each sentence must begin with What

  1. This is a wonderful garden!
  2. This is a surprise!
  3. He is causing a lot of of trouble!
  4. They are wonderful actors!
  5. She is a hard-working woman!