Archive | January 2015

The Causative

S + CV + Agent + Verb + Object

ex/ I had the barber cut my hair.




Get + to verb

S + Causative Verb + Obj + V (PP)

ex/ I had my hair cut

I had my homework done for me

I got my car fixed




– Sam made her boyfriend cut his hair.

– Cal let his friend borrow his car.

– Jane got her sister to sew her a dress.

– You should have the school call the boy’s parents


– Bill had his house painted.

– I get my groceries delivered.

  1. Matthew was having difficulty with his English homework, so his mother had Linda, Matthew’s older sister, _______ him with some of his assignments.
  • to do
  • to help
  • help
  • do

His mother had his sister help him with his assignments.

  1. As technology advances and calculations become more complex, humans need to get computers __________ for them.
  • work
  • to do
  • help
  • to think

Humans get computers to think for them (humans).

  1. To celebrate the holiday, the teacher had each of his students __________ a traditional dish at home and bring it to class to share at the party.
  • to cook
  • cooked
  • prepared
  • prepare

‘Cook’ would be okay here (however, it’s not a choice). “The teacher had the students prepare a dish….”

  1. Your car is a mess. If you want, I can recommend a great place where you can have it _________ inside and out, and it’s not too expensive.
  • cleaned
  • clean
  • to clean
  • wash

…get it (the car) cleaned (passive voice).

  1. After many hours of questioning, the detectives finally ________ the suspect tell them where the body was hidden.
  • maked
  • to make
  • make
  • made

  1. Clark: What are you going to wear to the wedding?
    Lois: I bought a gorgeous black dress and new shoes, and I’m getting my hair _________ at Silvio’s place.
  • to cut
  • did
  • done
  • to do


  1. Tomorrow I have to attend a conference, so please be advised that I will let you ______ a little early. If you are getting a ride from someone, please make the adjustments you need.
  • to leave
  • to go
  • left
  • go

  1. What a cute puppy! Can you get it ________ any tricks yet?
  • do
  • to do
  • done
  • jump

  1. Miley: How did you get this phone number?
    Bob: I __________ my friend hack your computer. I hope you don’t mind.
  • got
  • had
  • let
  • make

‘Let’ is grammatically correct, but doesn’t have much meaning here. ‘Make’ is in the present tense, while the sentence is in the past tense. “Got + to + hack” would be correct.

  1. Challenge:
    “Don’t make me make you say it!”
    Who will say “it”?
  • “you”
  • “me”

Paraphrase: Don’t put me in a situation where I have to force you to say it.

Vocabulary look

look – v (appearance); Followed by an adjective

look like – v prep ex/ It looks like rain as if it was going to… (resemble something); Followed by a noun

look alike – v adj (2, 3, or many things look similar)

look as if – v + conj (possibility going to happen, seem to be); Followed by unrealistic situations

look as though – v + conj; Followed by a clause (probability)

  1. Are you alright Mary? You _________ you haven’t slept in a long time.
  • look
  • look like
  • look as though
  • look alike

Looks as though is followed by a clause (sub. and verb)

  1. Pete, that hat really _________ good on you. You remind me of a young Humphrey Bogart in that movie Casablanca.
  • looks like
  • looks as if
  • looks
  • look

look(s) is followed by an adjective. It is a copula verb.

  1. Alison: What a strange painting.
    Francis: Yeah. It ___________ a Dali, but I’m pretty sure it’s a rip-off (fake).
  • looks like
  • looks
  • looks as though
  • looks alike

Look like is followed by a noun (or noun phrase)

  1. On the surface, the programs __________; yet they have certain, fundamental differences in application.
  • looks
  • look alike
  • look like
  • look as if

look alike = be similar.

  1. Well, it ________ the takeover won’t be completed before the year’s end. We’ll have to carry on with our prior plans.
  • looks
  • looks like
  • looks as
  • looks as though

  1. Why the huge smile, Jack? You ______ you’d just won the lottery or something.
  • look as if
  • look like
  • look alike
  • look

‘Look as if’ is usually followed by an unrealistic situation.

  1. Well, ladies and gentlemen, it ___________ our guest speaker won’t be able to make it tonight. I’m afraid we’ll have to go on without him.
  • looks like
  • look alike
  • looks as if
  • looks as though

Technically, you can also answer (c); but, because this is a case of a real situation, “looks as though” is preferable

  1. I had a feeling I recognized that girl. She’s Sarah’s sister, right? They really ________, don’t they?
  • look like
  • look alike
  • look
  • look as if

“Look alike”, in this case, means they have a similar appearance.

  1. Anyway, I went up to her thinking she was Sarah and I started talking to her. Wow, she really __________ confused.
  • looked like
  • looked alike
  • looked as though
  • looked

  1. I can’t accept this painting for your portfolio, Craig. I’m afraid it ________ too much ________ the last you handed in for evaluation.
  • looks, alike
  • looks, as though
  • looks, as if
  • looks, like
  • look, alike
  • look, as though
  • look, as if
  • look, like

Identifying Independent and Dependent Clauses

When you want to use commas and semicolons in sentences and when you are concerned about whether a sentence is or is not a fragment, a good way to start is to be able to recognize dependent and independent clauses. The definitions offered here will help you with this.

Independent Clause

An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence.

Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.

Dependent Clause

A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.

When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)

Dependent Marker Word

A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause.

When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy.

Some common dependent markers are: afteralthoughasas ifbecausebeforeeven ifeven thoughifin order tosincethoughunlessuntilwhateverwhenwhenever,whether, and while.

Connecting dependent and independent clauses

There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and independent marker words.

  1. Coordinating Conjunction

The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are andbutforornorso, and yet. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction:

Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.

  1. Independent Marker Word

An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word.

Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise.

Some common independent markers are: alsoconsequentlyfurthermorehowever,moreovernevertheless, and therefore.

Some Common Errors to Avoid

Comma Splices

A comma splice is the use of a comma between two independent clauses. You can usually fix the error by changing the comma to a period and therefore making the two clauses into two separate sentences, by changing the comma to a semicolon, or by making one clause dependent by inserting a dependent marker word in front of it.

Incorrect: I like this class, it is very interesting.

  • Correct: I like this class. It is very interesting.
  • (or) I like this class; it is very interesting.
  • (or) I like this class, and it is very interesting.
  • (or) I like this class because it is very interesting.
  • (or) Because it is very interesting, I like this class.

Fused Sentences

Fused sentences happen when there are two independent clauses not separated by any form of punctuation. This error is also known as a run-on sentence. The error can sometimes be corrected by adding a period, semicolon, or colon to separate the two sentences.

Incorrect: My professor is intelligent I’ve learned a lot from her.

  • Correct: My professor is intelligent. I’ve learned a lot from her.
  • (or) My professor is intelligent; I’ve learned a lot from her.
  • (or) My professor is intelligent, and I’ve learned a lot from her.
  • (or) My professor is intelligent; moreover, I’ve learned a lot from her.

Sentence Fragments

Sentence fragments happen by treating a dependent clause or other incomplete thought as a complete sentence. You can usually fix this error by combining it with another sentence to make a complete thought or by removing the dependent marker.

Incorrect: Because I forgot the exam was today.

  • Correct: Because I forgot the exam was today, I didn’t study.
  • (or) I forgot the exam was today.

  1. What is the function of the word ‘thought’in the following sentence?
    Jacqueline thought she would win first place in the contest.
  • subject of the independent clause
  • object of the independent clause
  • complement to the object
  • verb of the independent clause

‘would win’ is the verb of the noun clause ‘she would win’

  1. What is the function of ‘to celebrate her promotion’in the following sentence?
    Belinda invited her friends to her house for lunch to celebrate her promotion.
  • object to the verb ‘invited’
  • complement to ‘invited’
  • subject of a dependent clause
  • verb of a dependent clause

Why did she invite them? To celebrate.

  1. A subject complementis similar to an object, except that it completes the meaning of the subject rather than the verb.
  • true
  • false

  1. Is the following sentence complete and correct?
    What you do with your own free time is up to you.
  • Yes.
  • No – it needs an object.
  • No – it needs an action verb.
  • No – it needs a subject.

What you do with your own free time = S is = V up to you = sC

  1. Read the following sentence carefully:
    When they need a little source of inspiration, whether to help them persevere in their efforts or simply to brighten their otherwise ordinary lives, many people often turn to the arts, especially the movies, because they find that fantasy and fiction are great ways to forget the harshness of reality.
    What is the main subject-verb pairing?
  • they need
  • their efforts to brighten
  • people turn to
  • they find

independent clause = many people often turn to the arts

  1. Read the following sentence carefully:
    Over the last century, especially in the wealthier areas of the world, sociologists have noticed a growing tendency among ordinary people to neglect the natural relationship between themselves and their environment.
    How many independent clauses are in this sentence?
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

independent clause = sociologists have noticed a growing tendency The rest of the items are modifiers.

  1. Read the following sentence carefully:
    Over the last century, especially in the wealthier areas of the world, sociologists have noticed a growing tendency among ordinary people to neglect the natural relationship between themselves and their environment.
    What is the main subject of this sentence?
  • world
  • relationship
  • tendency
  • sociologists

  1. Wanting to be a good neighbor, Heather baked a pie for the family that had just moved in next door.
    In the above sentence, what is the independent clause?
  • Wanting to be a good neighbor
  • Heather baked a pie
  • that had just moved in next door

  1. A sentence can have no complements, or it can have many complements. It depends on the writer.
  • true
  • false

Not all sentences have complements, and some sentences have many complements.



Phrasal verbs are combinations of a verb and a preposition that altogether have  a very different meaning than two words by themselves.

Fall apart

  1. (come apart, disintegrate) The airplane collapsed to the ground and fell apart into pieces.
  2. (to break down mentally) Adam did not get a perfect score in the TOEFL test and finally he fell apart.

Fall out

  1. (to happen, to result) The discussion falls out to a wonderful trip in Sienna for a week.
  2. (the opposite of fall in) The precipitation comes all of sudden and makes the rookie soldiers fall out, searching for a safe settlement.

Fall behind (to lag behind)

  1. He runs fast like a bolt of thunder, but i do not want to fall behind him anymore.
  2. We fall behind with our payments and get a mulct.

Fall for (gullible, believe in something without reservation)

I fell for Yuriy’s explanation that the war came from another reason.

Fall through (to fail)

Adam seems limp after knowing that his test falls through.

Fall in (to line up in a row)

The rookie armies fall in behind the leader.

Fall in with (to become involved with someone or a group)

Natalie fell in with Deborah’s wrong attitude who had served time together in prison.

Fall back (to move back from something, to retreat from something)

The opponent was exhausted and fell back. I took that opportunity to get away.

Fall back on (to fall backwards onto someone or something)

Adam stumbled when he was walking in the rain and fell back on a dirty mud.

  1. A good salesman can sell anything to anyone; he knows what tricks people usually fall _____.
  • to
  • for
  • in
  • through

fall for – believe

  1. University is not like high school; if you fall _______ on your studies in university, it is very difficult to catch up.
  • up
  • down
  • behind
  • in

  1. Jennifer had made plans to go to Cuba for the holidays with friends, but her plans fell _______ when her best friend broke her leg.
  • down
  • to
  • in with
  • through

fall through – failed, did not complete

  1. I can’t find my keys; they must have fallen _______ of my pocket.
  • in
  • back
  • out
  • through

  1. Heather and Katie had a falling _______ over a boy five years ago. They haven’t spoken to each other since then.
  • out
  • down
  • over
  • back

a falling out – a fight

  1. Kevin’s teacher is very strict. He always demands that his students fall _____ line at the beginning of each class.
  • with
  • in
  • out
  • back

fall in line – stand in straight lines (like in the army)

  1. Michael’s parents were worried about Michael’s going to school in a different city; they mostly worried that he would fall _________ bad kids.
  • back
  • to
  • in with
  • off

fall in with – become involved, join

  1. Calvin went to culinary (cooking) school to learn a skill that he would always be able to fall _______ in case his singing career didn’t go well.
  • back
  • back on
  • behind
  • over

fall back on – rely on, have as backup

How to Increase Your Vocabulary

– Read what you are interested in! Then Write

– Theme

ex/ tech = obsolete, state-of-the-art (newest), update (to make newer), downgrade, cutting-edge

– Similar meaning

Increase = extend, expand, accelerate, intensify, reinforce

– Do not limit yourself to 1 word! Learn different form of the same word


beauty (n), beautify (v), beautiful (adj), beautifully (adv)

– Learn roots-suffix, prefix


root -ject => inject, eject, object, subject

– Listen to any spoken English (try

– dictionary eng->eng + transcript (try or

– Do not use on line translator!

  1. Which of these words does not belong in the group?
    interrupt, disrupt, erupt, report, corrupt, rupture
  • disrupt
  • corrupt
  • rupture
  • report

Report is the only word that does not have the root –rupt

  1. What might be a vocabulary theme for these words?
    solar, thermal, turbine, hydroelectric, nuclear
  • cars
  • engines
  • energy
  • weapons

  1. The word amazingis an adjective. Which of the following is its verb form?
  • amazement
  • amazingly
  • to maze
  • amaze

  1. The best way to increase and maintain vocabulary is by reading and writing.
  • true
  • false

  1. Which of the following sentences best illustrates the meaning of the wordexplain?
  • To explain is to say how something works.
  • The teacher explained the process so well that everyone understood it.
  • A textbook explains the ideas.
  • I asked my friend to explain the grammar.

To explain is to make someone understand something. This sentence clearly expresses the meaning.

  1. In which of the following vocabulary groups would the word ejectfit?
  • A group for the root -ject
  • A theme group for computer actions.
  • A theme group for things a pilot does
  • All three could be possible groups.

  1. which of the following words would NOT fit in the function group for add to?
  • amplify
  • raise
  • boost
  • deconstruct

‘Deconstruct’ means to break down to smaller pieces.

  1. Which of the following adjectives does not have a verb form?
  • sure
  • final
  • heavy
  • light

ensure, finalize, lighten

  1. Words that you have added to the knowpile of cards never need to be looked at again.
  • true
  • false

Review these once in a while to make sure you don’t forget them.

  1. A word group has a function to make less. Which group fits this function?(watch out for spelling)
  • subtract, reduce, lesson, ease
  • lower, ease, lessen, calm
  • reduce, subtract, easy, lighten
  • lessen, ease, remove, light

Please lower the volume. The teacher tried to ease the tension in the room. We need to lessen the burden of the middle class. The president tried to calm the anxious nation.

Too much – Not Enough


| too much / many


|                 just enough

| – enough    just right

|                 perfect


| not enough  (not adj/adv enough)

|                  (too adj/adv)


Summer – too hot                    (complaint)

Winter – not hot enough         (complaint)

Money – going out

A : I do not have enough $

B : I have enough for me.

C : I have too much. I will give you some (I have more than enough)

  1. If someone says: “It’s too hot outside,”then he should:
  • take off his jacket
  • put on a jacket
  • put on sunscreen
  • smile and be happy
  1. If you don’t have enough time to study, you should:
  • study harder
  • spend less time watching TV
  • get a tutor
  • read more
  1. Adam: “I love cake, but this one is a little __________ sweet.”
    Valen: “Really? I think it’s just right.”
  • enough
  • just
  • to
  • so
  • too


  1. If Isabelle’s new shirt is too big, she should:
  • return it for a smaller one
  • stretch it out
  • get bigger pants, too
  • eat less McDonald’s
  1. I’m feeling great. That meal was just big ____________.
  • too
  • right
  • enough
  • not enough
  1. I don’t know if Shane has ___________ money to get in. I’ll go see if he’s at the entrance.
  • to
  • too
  • too much
  • enough
  • not enough
  • just right
  1. It would be very difficult for anyone to complain that they have __________ happiness in life.
  • too good
  • too
  • not enough
  • too much
  • too many
  1. I have too much free time these days, so I am ___________.
  • dead
  • bored
  • busy
  • hungry
  1. There are definitely _____________ criminals in this city, and certainly ___________ police officers to catch them all.
    Fill in the FIRSTblank in the sentence.
  • too many
  • too much
  • not enough
  • just enough
  1. There are definitely _____________ criminals in this city, and certainly ___________ police officers to catch them all.
    Fill in the SECONDblank in the sentence.
  • too many
  • too much
  • not enough
  • just enough

War & Military Vocabulary

Chaos = big mess/big trouble

– Army => ground soldier, they have tank, they set up the basis
– Marine corps (read: marine core) => fighting soldier
– Navy => they have ship, submarine
– Air Force => they have jet, pilot

Rank (level of people in army)
– Officers (higher rank): General /admiral (top in the navy)

– Enlisted (lower rank): Sergeant, Corporal, Private
POW (Prisoner of War)
KIA (Killed in action)
MIA (Missing in action)


Weapons (arms):
– RPG (Rocket Prepelled Grenade)
– IED (Improvised Explosive Device)
– Rocket-aimed
– Missile-guided
– Mortar-aimed (it is like a big bullet), lobbed
– Bullet (rounds)
– Anti-aircraft, anti-tank
– Grenade (shrapnel = pieces of metal)
– Sanctions (economic weapon)

Boot camp (place where army get exercise)
Drill Sergeant (trainers)

Ceasefire (Stop shooting)
Truce (long creasefire)
Treaty (a contract between two countries)
UNSC (United National Security Center)

Guerilla (soliders who are not part of army) -warfare
militant (militia, a group of millitant)
ally/coalition (create a group of Nation to join together for command fight)

conflict (a polite word for war)

offensive (when you attack)
counter- (the other side attacks back)
repel (push you back)
incursion (enter the enemies territory, get inside)
onslaught destroying/killing a lot of people without pardon, raid)

boots on the ground (send soldiers into territory on the ground)
ground forces (walking in guns, knife, RPG)