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Tuton Bahasa Indonesia/MKDU4110
Jelaskan isi atau maksud table tersebut dengan bahasa Anda secara efektif.
Jawaban Nomor 1
Bahasa merupakan sebuah sistem, yang artinya, bahasa dibentuk oleh sejumlah komponen yang berpola secara tetap dan dapat dikaidahkan. Kedudukan bahasa adalah sebagai karakteristik suatu bangsa, misalnya bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa persatuan (bahasa Nasional) yang tercantum dalam Sumpah pemuda (28-10-1928) yang berfungsi:
Selain itu, fungsi bahasa Indonesia yang lain adalah: (1) Sebagai alat perhubungan. Disini masyarakat Indonesia terdiri dari berbagai suku dengan bahasa yang berbeda-beda, jadi akan sangat sulit berkomunikasi kecuali ada satu bahasa pokok yang digunakan. Maka dari itu digunakanlah Bahasa Indonesia sebagai alat komunikasi dan perhubungan nasional. (2) Sebagai alat pemersatu bangsa. Disini mengacu pada keragaman yang ada pada Indonesia dari suku, agama, ras, dan budaya, bahasa Indonesia dijadikan sebagai media yang dapat membuat kesemua elemen masyarakat yang beragam tersebut kedalam sebuah persatuan.
Jawaban Nomor 2
Pada tanggal 25-28 Februari 1975, Hasil perumusan seminar politik bahasa Nasional yang diselenggarakan di Jakarta. Dikemukakan Kedudukan bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa Negara adalah :
Jawaban Nomor 3
Setuju. Bahasa bersifat indah karena dengan bahasa bisa dibuat puisi, lirik lagu, syair, novel dll. Bahasa bersifat dinamis karena bisa berubah sewaktu-waktu, misalnya Ejaan lama menjadi ejaan baru seperti pada contoh nama orang Tjutju menjadi Cucu, atau banyak juga bahasa gaul saat ini yang memiliki arti baru, seperti PA, alay, dll. Selain itu bahasa bersifat produktif, dengan akal budinya manusia dapat mengubah-ubah susunan bunyi-bunyi bahasa menjadi bunyi bahasa yang berbeda-beda. Perbedaan tersebut membuat bahasa menjadi produktif. Contoh: Tuhan, hantu.
Jawaban Nomor 4
(Lisan) Menyimak => (Tulis) Membaca => (Sifat) aktif reseptif
(Lisan) Berbicara => (Tulis) Menulis => (Sifat) aktif produktif
Keterampilan berbahasa yang bertujuan memahami pesan (reseptif) dalam bahasa lisan adalah menyimak, sedangkan dalam bahasa tulis adalah membaca. Dalam hal ini kita menyimak suatu pembicaraan atau dengan membaca.
Keterampilan berbahasa yang bertujuan menyampaikan pesan dalam bahasa lisan adalah berbicara, sedangkan dalam bahasa tulis adalah menulis. Jadi pembicara dan penulis menghasilkan (produktif) pesan yang disampaikan kepada orang lain.
Jawaban Nomor 5
Direktur Jendral Pajak Kementrian Keuangan Ken Dwijugiasteadi mengeluarkan peraturan Direktur Jenderal nomor 11 Tahun 2016 yang akan menjadi panduan teknis pelaksanaan program pengampunan pajak secara lebih rinci. Aturan ini diterbitkan sebagai upaya dirjen pajak untuk meluruskan persepsi masyarakat terkait pelaksanaan amnesty pajak. Saat ini berbagai keresahan di kalangan masyarakat muncul karena tidak memahami tax amnesty secara penuh.
“Justru peraturan ini akan mempertegas asas dari Undang-Undang Tax Amnesty itu sendiri, yaitu azas keadilan. Azas keadilan. Memang semua masyarakat sekarang ini animonya sangat tinggi untuk mengikuti tax amnesty. Artinya apa? Masyarakat itu percaya sama Presidennya, ya… Sangat percaya dengan bapak Presiden, makanya mereka juga ikut, tetapi ada keresahan-keresahan yang muncul itu karena belum dijelaskan secara detail tentang asas keadilan dari Undang-Undang itu sendiri.”
Terdapat poin-poin penting dalam Perdirjen Pajak No 11 Tahun 2016 ini. Salah satunya adalah penjelasan mengenai kelompok masyarakat yang berpenghasilan di bawah penghasilan tidak kena pajak, yang saat ini sebesar 54 juta rupiah per tahun atau setara dengan 4,5 juta rupiah per bulan bagi 1 orang pribadi tidak wajib mengikuti amnesty pajak.
Seperti yang diketahui di media sosial masyarakat resah, karena menganggap program pengampunan pajak ini menyasar seluruh masyarakat termasuk masyarakat kecil. Keresahanpun bertambah karena ada bumbu-bumbu ancaman 200%, jika tidak mengikuti program pengampunan pajak. Oleh karena itu, Dirjen Pajak pun segera menyosialisasikan aturan ini untuk meluruskan persepsi masyarakat dan memastikan proses maupun hasil amnesty pajak sesuai harapan. Dari Jakarta Drus Salabenala Rizalul Fikri Kantor Berita ANtara mewartakan.
I open the new website, but I can’t log on; Maybe it’s under construction.
Looking after a kitten is not an easy job.
It rarely happens to me looking up unknown words in the dictionary since I’m getting used to search for information in the online dictionary.
What an ignorant boy! I can’t make up his unforgiveable mistakes.
I’m moving in Kyiv next month.
I feel ashamed to the owner of pet shop since I’ve never paid the money back that I borrowed two weeks ago.
Kids, pick your toys up and start studying!
I point you out that I work every day; It’s the reason why I can’t meet you so often.
I seldom buy original books from e-bay. I only search for the free downloadable e-book versions and print them out; It’s much cheaper!
The careless dentist pulled my son’s tooth off by mistake yesterday; Now, I accuse and sconce him to pay $3.000.000
Thanks for borrowing the beautiful flowers; You don’t need to worry because I’ve already put them away in the vase.
I want to put this book back; but i forget which rack it belongs to.
My girlfriend put her hand down from my arm when she came across her ex.
To put off is similar with to procrastinate, the words which I hate very much.
If I were you, i would put on. It’s terrible! I only can see bone and skin.
Put your jackets and scarf on if you don’t want to get cold outside.
Unfortunately, the unexperienced firefighters couldn’t put the ferocious fire out resulting many ablaze electronics burnt like those in the hell.
We’re going to take a valentine’s day competition. Notice that the best love letters will be put up in the lobby.
If you want to remember the new vocabulary fast, read the words out.
This illegal application letter should be ripped up asap to avoid fights.
The imprudent students can’t rub out his wrong answers since he’s written everything in ink.
The little girl screams and runs away from a giant monster.
Damn, we’re on the way to the jungle and now we run out of the fuel!
I’ve been saving up for 1 year for taking a vacation abroad.
What a sly player! I wish the referee sent him off.
Finally I get my long holiday and I’m able to set off to explore the beauty of my country.
This unexperienced man had set up a leather company, but he failed in only 3 months.
The villain, who has been in the prison for three times, had robbed the bank, but he got away with it.
What a careless man! Take the purse then get into the car quickly!
I always get off the school bus at 7.30
Melannie can get on with everybody easily.
You must show the ticket to the conductor after getting on the train.
Quick! Get out of the car or you’ll become roast corpse!
I usually need a week to get over from flu.
What a lazy girl! She’s always getting up after 8!
They’ll give a bar of chocolate away if you show that today is your birthday.
I never give the books back to the library before the due date.
Enough already! I give up playing video games 3 hours a day!
“You are disgusting! Telling my big secret to everyone without feeling any guilty. Now, go away!”
I believe that someday I will go back to meet you in the promised land.
These avocadoes have already gone off! I can’t consume them or I’ll get matters with my belly.
I go on with my homework in the classroom despite being scolded by teachers.
Please, don’t fire me! I assure that this pathetic experience will never go on anymore in the future.
The electronic centre, which I’m used to visiting, burnt at night and didn’t go out until the firefighter came late.
Matthew is going out with Katie for 3 years now, after they met on a blind date.
My cats grow up fast as I give them a lot of protein and meat.
Hang on, I must answer to my mother’s question first.
I can’t hang up my clothes since I don’t have any wardrobes.
I don’t like people who hang up without saying ‘good-bye’, it sounds rude to me!
The cats have cute clothes on and are ready to hang out with my dog.
If I go with my father, I won’t need to hurry up preparing the equipment for picnic since he’s such a slow person.
This time tomorrow I will be joining in the play.
You can’t step on the grass, there’s plank written “keep out!”
I don’t like Stanislav and Slava, so I leave them out attending my party.
My students’ bad behaviour always let me down.
I’m so tired that I lie down without take my jacket down.
I don’t know how to log off from this messy website since the appearance isn’t rather user friendly.
Multitasking is several vims which are done simultaneously. It may save your time, increase productivity and prevents procrastination; in some cases, save your money. But not all multitasking is good to accomplish. It sometimes impairs your concentration as based on research, a human brain can do one thing in a time. Doing multitasking sometimes can be unique and funny, for instance:
This innocent cat seemed happy with his activities as it ate and defecated in the same time. It didn’t worry its environment at all, and kept focus on his cute actions.
5 activities in the same time
If you notice this picture. I bet you can guess easily what was happening. Yes! He was driving a bus, smoking a cigarette, drinking a cup of coffee, calling through cell phone and serving passengers. Two thumbs up for this versatile steersman.
While naughty sister was being ordered to take care of her small relative. She was preoccupied playing game with her tablet. As she did not want to abandon hers, she used her foot to manage the bottle of milk. Her parents would have been angry and laugh seeing this funny occurrence.
Admittedly, Hula hoop can solve fat problem especially on belly’s part. While he prickled on his nose, picking his nose should be done. The bravo boy seemed so straightforward that he did not notice what was he doing.
Most of us love to play consoles to diminish exhaustion and replenish our happiness. It is sometimes sucks to receive a call when we are eager playing game (in fact I feel the same, lol). As he did not want to leave both of these vigours, this dude kept continuing two hustles at the same time. Well, With a little help of his foot, he could ensure his cell phone stick on his ear.
You’ve likely heard that multitasking is problematic, but new studies show that it kills your performance and may even damage your brain. Research conducted at Standford University found that multitasking is less productive than doing a single thing at a time. The researchers also found that people who are regularly bombarded with several streams of electronic information cannot pay attention, recall information, or switch from one job to another as well as those who complete one task at a time.
A Special Skill?
But what if some people have a special gift for multitasking? The Stanford researchers compared groups of people based on their tendency to multitask and their belief that it helps their performance. They found that heavy multitaskers—those who multitask a lot and feel that it boosts their performance—were actuallyworse at multitasking than those who like to do a single thing at a time. The frequent multitaskers performed worse because they had more trouble organizing their thoughts and filtering out irrelevant information, and they were slower at switching from one task to another. Ouch.
Multitasking reduces your efficiency and performance because your brain can only focus on one thing at a time. When you try to do two things at once, your brain lacks the capacity to perform both tasks successfully.
Multitasking Lowers IQ
Research also shows that, in addition to slowing you down, multitasking lowers your IQ. A study at the University of London found that participants who multitasked during cognitive tasks experienced IQ score declines that were similar to what they’d expect if they had smoked marijuana or stayed up all night. IQ drops of 15 points for multitasking men lowered their scores to the average range of an 8-year-old child.
So the next time you’re writing your boss an email during a meeting, remember that your cognitive capacity is being diminished to the point that you might as well let an 8-year-old write it for you.
Brain Damage From Multitasking
It was long believed that cognitive impairment from multitasking was temporary, but new research suggests otherwise. Researchers at the University of Sussex in the UK compared the amount of time people spend on multiple devices (such as texting while watching TV) to MRI scans of their brains. They found that high multitaskers had less brain density in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region responsible for empathy as well as cognitive and emotional control.
While more research is needed to determine if multitasking is physically damaging the brain (versus existing brain damage that predisposes people to multitask), it’s clear that multitasking has negative effects. Neuroscientist Kep Kee Loh, the study’s lead author, explained the implications: “I feel that it is important to create an awareness that the way we are interacting with the devices might be changing the way we think and these changes might be occurring at the level of brain structure.”
Learning From Multitasking
If you’re prone to multitasking, this is not a habit you’ll want to indulge—it clearly slows you down and decreases the quality of your work. Even if it doesn’t cause brain damage, allowing yourself to multitask will fuel any existing difficulties you have with concentration, organization, and attention to detail.
Multitasking in meetings and other social settings indicates low Self- and Social Awareness, two emotional intelligence (EQ) skills that are critical to success at work. TalentSmart has tested more than a million people and found that 90% of top performers have high EQs. If multitasking does indeed damage the anterior cingulate cortex (a key brain region for EQ) as current research suggests, it will lower your EQ in the process.
So every time you multitask you aren’t just harming your performance in the moment; you may very well be damaging an area of your brain that’s critical to your future success at work.
Learn the vocabulary to talk about being absent from jobs in English:
to take time off = to be absent from work, at home or on vacation.
I’m going to take a few days off to visit my parents.
I’m taking Monday off to go to the dentist and do some jobs at home.
to take a vacation = to take time away from work, especially when you travel for pleasure.
I’m taking my vacation next month. We’re going to Spain.
I have to take my vacation during the school holidays because of my children.
to take a sabbatical = to take time away from work to study or travel, usually while continuing to be paid.
He’s on a sabbatical while he does his MBA. He’ll be back next month.
She’s on a sabbatical from her job while she does research for her thesis.
to take unpaid leave = to have an authorized absence from work but without salary.
She’s taken some unpaid leave while she moves house.
I don’t have any paid holiday left so I’d like to take unpaid leave.
to be off sick = to be absent from work due to illness.
When you are off sick, you must provide a doctor’s note.
He has been off sick for a few days now. I think he’ll be back at work on Monday.
sick leave = the time that you can be absent from work, often while being paid part or all of your salary.
She is having an operation and so will be on sick leave for the next two months.
When you are on sick leave prescribed by your doctor, you get paid your full salary for the first three months.
maternity leave = the period a mother is legally authorised to be absent from work before and after the birth of a child.
Her maternity leave finishes next week but she is not coming back to work.
Statutory maternity leave is paid for up to 26 weeks and can start 11 weeks before the baby is due.
parental leave = the time that a parent is allowed to spend away from work to take care of their baby.
He has taken parental leave to look after the baby while his wife returns to work.
You have to work for an employer for one year to qualify for parental leave to look after your children.
statutory sick pay = the money paid by a company to an employee who cannot work due to illness.
If you are absent from work due to illness, you may be able to claim sick pay.
To claim sick pay, you have to have medical certificate from your doctor stating that you are unable to work.
a public holiday = a day when almost everybody does not have to go to work (for example in Indonesia August 17th or January 1st).
We have 25 days paid holiday plus 10 public holidays.
When there is a public holiday on a Thursday, many people take the Friday off too.
Memperkenalkan diri merupakan hal yang lazim digunakan ketika Anda baru mengenal seseorang. Dalam tulisan kali ini, Berikut disajikan percakapan sederhana untuk memperkenalkan diri dalam bahasa Italia.
|Gianni||:||Sei tu Annemarie?||Kamu Annemarie?|
|Annemarie||:||Si, sono io.||Ya, saya sendiri.|
|Gianni||:||Ciao, io sono Gianni.||Hai, saya Gianni.|
|Annemarie||:||Ciao, piacere!.||Hai, senang bertemu denganmu.|
|Gianni||:||Sei italiana?||Kamu orang Italia?|
|Annemarie||:||Si sono italiana di Oristano e tu?||Ya, saya orang Italia berasal dari Oristano dan kamu?|
|Gianni||:||Anch’io sono italiano ma di Cagliari.||Saya juga orang Italia tapi dari Cagliari.|
Kata Ganti Subjek:
|Kata Ganti Subjek||Kata Kerja tak teratur(Essere)|
|Lui / lei||Dia||Lui/ lei||E’|
Menanyakan Kabar (Come stai? Apa kabarmu?)
Molto bene (Baik-baik saja)
Abbastanza bene (Cukup baik)
Non c’e’ male (Tidak buruk/lumayan)
Cosi’ cosi’ (Ya begitulah)
Molto male (Buruk sekali)
|Kata Kerja Tak Teratur(Stare Tinggal)|
|Lui/ lei sta’|
Penggunaan kata kerja Stare:
|Sto a casa||(Saya akan ada dirumah).|
|Come stai?||(Bagaimana kabarmu?)|
|Mi sta bene!||(Saya setuju!)|
|Sto mangiando||(Saya sedang makan).|
|Gianni||:||Bene, allora ci vediamo domani!||Baiklah, kita ketemu lagi besok.|
|Nathalie||:||Si certo dove?||Tentu, dimana?|
|Gianni||:||Qui, in via del convento.||Disini, di jalan Convento.|
|Nathalie||:||Va bene a domani allora!||Baiklah, sampai jumpa lagi besok.|
A dopo (sampai nanti)
Ci vediamo (sampai jumpa)
Arrivederci (sampai jumpa lagi)
A presto (sampai bertemu lagi)
A domani (sampai besok)
Ciao (Halo/ sampai jumpa)
A piu’ tardi (sampai nanti)
Latihan. Lengkapi dengan kata kerja “essere” dan “stare” :
1 Ciao come tu (stare)__________?
2 Bene grazie e lei come (stare) __________?
3 Anch’io (stare) __________bene.
4 Voi (stare) __________qui a Milano?
5 Noi (stare) __________a Milano per lavoro.
6 Dove (essere) __________i tuoi amici?
7 La lezione (essere) __________difficile.
8 Io (essere) __________stanco.
9 Tu (essere) __________Marcello.
Dizionarietto (Kamus mini)
Penulis adalah Pengarang Buku Bahasa Italia: “Parli Italiano” & “Elementi di Grammatica Italiana” yang di terbitkan oleh PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Penulis belajar bahasa Italia di Universita per Stranieri Di Perugia, Italy.