Tag Archive | Indonesia

Jawaban Diskusi 1 Bahasa Indonesia MKDU 4110

Tugas 1

Tuton Bahasa Indonesia/MKDU4110

  1. Jelaskan apa yang dimaksud dengan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai lambang kebanggaan nasional dan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai lambang identitas nasional.
  1. Tuliskan fungsi-fungsi bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa negara.
  1. Setujukah Anda bila dikatakan bahwa bahasa itu indah, produktif , dan dinamis? Jelaskan pendapat Anda dan berikan masing-masing contohnya.  
  1. Isilah kolom yang kosong pada table berikut ini.
 

Keterampilan Berbahasa

 

Lisan Tulis Sifat
    aktif reseptif
    aktif produktif

Jelaskan isi atau maksud table tersebut dengan bahasa Anda secara efektif.

  1. Tuliskan isi berita Dirjen Pajak Terbitkan Aturan Baru Tax Amnesty yang dapat Anda unduh dari youtube dengan alamat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yz7QyNJPx44

 

 

Jawaban Nomor 1

Bahasa merupakan sebuah sistem, yang artinya, bahasa dibentuk oleh sejumlah komponen yang berpola secara tetap dan dapat dikaidahkan. Kedudukan bahasa adalah sebagai karakteristik suatu bangsa, misalnya bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa persatuan (bahasa Nasional)  yang tercantum dalam Sumpah pemuda (28-10-1928) yang berfungsi:

  1. Lambang kebanggaan kebangsaan. Disini bahasa Indonesia mencerminkan nilai-nilai luhur yang mendasari perilaku bangsa Indonesia itu sendiri.
  2. Lambang Identitas Nasional. Disini bahasa Indonesia mewakili jatidiri, ciri khas serta karakteristik bangsa Indonesia, selain Bahasa Indonesia terdapat pula lambang identitas nasional yang lain yaitu bendera Merah-Putih dan lambang negara Garuda Pancasila.

Selain itu, fungsi bahasa Indonesia yang lain adalah: (1) Sebagai alat perhubungan. Disini masyarakat Indonesia terdiri dari berbagai suku dengan bahasa yang berbeda-beda, jadi akan sangat sulit berkomunikasi kecuali ada satu bahasa pokok yang digunakan. Maka dari itu digunakanlah Bahasa Indonesia sebagai alat komunikasi dan perhubungan nasional. (2) Sebagai alat pemersatu bangsa. Disini mengacu pada keragaman yang ada pada Indonesia dari suku, agama, ras, dan budaya, bahasa Indonesia dijadikan sebagai media yang dapat membuat kesemua elemen masyarakat yang beragam tersebut kedalam sebuah persatuan.

 

Jawaban Nomor 2

Pada tanggal 25-28 Februari 1975, Hasil perumusan seminar politik bahasa Nasional yang diselenggarakan di Jakarta. Dikemukakan Kedudukan bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa Negara adalah :

  1. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa resmi kenegaraan. Kedudukan pertama dari Kedudukan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa Negara dibuktikan dengan digunakannya bahasa Indonesia dalam naskah proklamasi kemerdekaan RI 1945. Mulai saat itu dipakailah bahasa Indonesia dalam segala upacara, peristiwa, dan kegiatan kenegaraan baik dalam bentuk lisan maupun tulisan.
  2. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai alat pengantar dalam dunia pendidikan. Kedudukan kedua dari Kedudukan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa Negara dibuktikan dengan pemakaian bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa pengantar di lembaga pendidikan dari taman kanak-kanak, maka materi pelajaran yang berbentuk media cetak juga harus berbahasa Indonesia. Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan menerjemahkan buku-buku yang berbahasa asing atau menyusunnya sendiri. Cara ini akan sangat membantu dalam meningkatkan perkembangan bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa ilmu pengetahuan dan teknolologi (iptek).
  3. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai penghubung pada tingkat Nasional untuk kepentingan perencanaan dan pelaksanaan pembangunan serta pemerintah. Kedudukan ketiga dari Kedudukan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa Negara dibuktikan dengan digunakannya Bahasa Indonesia dalam hubungan antar badan pemerintah dan penyebarluasan informasi kepada masyarakat. Sehubungan dengan itu hendaknya diadakan penyeragaman sistem administrasi dan mutu media komunikasi massa. Tujuan agar isi atau pesan yang disampaikan dapat dengan cepat dan tepat diterima oleh masyarakat.
  4. Bahasa Indonesia Sebagai pengembangan kebudayaan Nasional, Ilmu dan Teknologi. Kedudukan keempat dari Kedudukan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa Negara dibuktikan dengan penyebaran ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, baik melalui buku-buku pelajaran, buku-buku populer, majalah-majalah ilmiah maupun media cetak lainnya. Karena sangatlah tidak mungkin bila suatu buku yang menjelaskan tentang suatu kebudayaan daerah, ditulis dengan menggunakan bahasa daerah itu sendiri, dan menyebabkan orang lain belum tentu akan mengerti.

 

Jawaban Nomor 3

Setuju. Bahasa bersifat indah karena dengan bahasa bisa dibuat puisi, lirik lagu, syair, novel dll. Bahasa bersifat dinamis karena bisa berubah sewaktu-waktu, misalnya Ejaan lama menjadi ejaan baru seperti pada contoh nama orang Tjutju menjadi Cucu, atau banyak juga bahasa gaul saat ini yang memiliki arti baru, seperti PA, alay, dll. Selain itu bahasa bersifat produktif, dengan akal budinya manusia dapat mengubah-ubah susunan bunyi-bunyi bahasa menjadi bunyi bahasa yang berbeda-beda. Perbedaan tersebut membuat bahasa menjadi produktif. Contoh: Tuhan, hantu.

 

Jawaban Nomor 4

(Lisan) Menyimak => (Tulis) Membaca => (Sifat) aktif reseptif

(Lisan) Berbicara => (Tulis) Menulis => (Sifat) aktif produktif

Keterampilan berbahasa yang bertujuan memahami pesan (reseptif) dalam bahasa lisan adalah menyimak, sedangkan dalam bahasa tulis adalah membaca. Dalam hal ini kita menyimak suatu pembicaraan atau dengan membaca.

Keterampilan berbahasa yang bertujuan menyampaikan pesan dalam bahasa lisan adalah berbicara, sedangkan dalam bahasa tulis adalah menulis. Jadi pembicara dan penulis menghasilkan (produktif) pesan yang disampaikan kepada orang lain.

 

Jawaban Nomor 5

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yz7QyNJPx44

Direktur Jendral Pajak Kementrian Keuangan Ken Dwijugiasteadi mengeluarkan peraturan Direktur Jenderal nomor 11 Tahun 2016 yang akan menjadi panduan teknis pelaksanaan program pengampunan pajak secara lebih rinci. Aturan ini diterbitkan sebagai upaya dirjen pajak untuk meluruskan persepsi masyarakat terkait pelaksanaan amnesty pajak. Saat ini berbagai keresahan di kalangan masyarakat muncul karena tidak memahami tax amnesty secara penuh.

“Justru peraturan ini akan mempertegas asas dari Undang-Undang Tax Amnesty itu sendiri, yaitu azas keadilan. Azas keadilan. Memang semua masyarakat sekarang ini animonya sangat tinggi untuk mengikuti tax amnesty. Artinya apa? Masyarakat itu percaya sama Presidennya, ya… Sangat percaya dengan bapak Presiden, makanya mereka juga ikut, tetapi ada keresahan-keresahan yang muncul itu karena belum dijelaskan secara detail tentang asas keadilan dari Undang-Undang itu sendiri.”

Terdapat poin-poin penting dalam Perdirjen Pajak No 11 Tahun 2016 ini. Salah satunya adalah penjelasan mengenai kelompok masyarakat yang berpenghasilan di bawah penghasilan tidak kena pajak, yang saat ini sebesar 54 juta rupiah per tahun atau setara dengan 4,5 juta rupiah per bulan bagi 1 orang pribadi tidak wajib mengikuti amnesty pajak.

Seperti yang diketahui di media sosial masyarakat resah, karena menganggap program pengampunan pajak ini menyasar seluruh masyarakat termasuk masyarakat kecil. Keresahanpun bertambah karena ada bumbu-bumbu ancaman 200%, jika tidak mengikuti program pengampunan pajak. Oleh karena itu, Dirjen Pajak pun segera menyosialisasikan aturan ini untuk meluruskan persepsi masyarakat dan memastikan proses maupun hasil amnesty pajak sesuai harapan. Dari Jakarta Drus Salabenala Rizalul Fikri Kantor Berita ANtara mewartakan.

 

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Indonesia, our beloved country

Indonesia is an archipelago. It means that Indonesia is a country with a lot of islands. The country has 3 time zones. Indonesia has 5 main islands, which are: Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua, and Sumatra. Java is the smallest island among all main islands, but has the biggest population among all. It seems that a lot of people move to Java to get their luck. Besides, in Java, there is a capital of Indonesia, Jakarta.

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The second smallest main island is Sulawesi. The island looks unique, because it resembles a letter ‘K’. Sulawesi, along with its beautiful seas and beaches, is an island with many unique plants and animals. It happens because of breeding of different species that creates new biological natures. For example: Gorontalo monkey, Babirusa, Boto-boto fish, Tarsius and Anoa. Animals mentioned here are only a very few examples that can only be found in Sulawesi. It is also known that there are 35 different different languages spoken here.

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Sumatera is the sixth biggest island in the universe. Based on the history, Sumatera’s inhibited by Melayu races, which consisted of different etnic groups such as: Aceh, Batak, Melayu, Minangkabau, etc. Melayu’s language became the national language of Indonesia. Local people have unique food. Let say Rendang is one of Indonesian favourite food (and maybe international food) which can be found in almost all areas especially in Java. The dish is originally from West Sumatera.

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Kalimantan is an island which produce a lot of coconuts. The island is also called “Island with thousand rivers”, because it has tremendous numbers of river. Kalimantan consists of 3 areas: “Indonesia”, “Malaysia”, and “Brunei”. The local people believe much in superstition. For example, “Kuntilanak” (a woman spirit in white with long hair) is derived from one of cities.

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Last but not least, Papua island resembles of a kangaroo. It is like “Africa of Indonesia”, because many people come there just only to exploit the mining while the local people still remain in poverty. After the huge exploitation, they only leave the place like a garbage. The island needs more attention by government and should be managed carefully because can give a lot of benefit if it is taken properly by appropriate people.

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English Phrasal Verbs (Part 1)

This is the list of phrasal verbs from English exercise book “Destination B1” – Malcolm Mann and Steve Taylore-Knowles published by MacMillan. Note that I create my own sentence from each phrasal verb.

Part I

  1. Add up to find the total of

I add up all the books, which I’ve bought from the bookstore, and give the bills to my mother to get reimbursement.

  1. Blow up to explode

His inventions have been blowing up for the last 3 months and make him rich abruptly.

  1. Break down to stop working (for a machine)

The sewing machine broke down yesterday, so that the supervisor must call someone to service the machine and fix the issues to fulfill demands before the due date.

  1. Break in(to) to enter illegally

My mother-in-law’s house was broken into by a stranger when the family was not there yesterday.

  1. Bring up to take care of a child until he or she becomes an adult

Since my grandmother didn’t have any children, she brought up my mother on her own.

  1. Build up to increase

The more you practice English the more you build up your skill.

  1. Call back to ring again on the phone

You sound busy, I’ll call you back later.

  1. Call off to cancel

The huge riot calls off the concert in the square.

  1. Calm down to become/make calmer

As the cat is frightened for seeing the catastrophe, it runs up and down everywhere and is difficult to calm down.

  1. Carry on to continue

I’ll never stop carrying on my journey to success.

  1. Catch up (with) to reach the same point/level as

The less smart students find great difficulties to catch up with their friends in the classroom.

  1. Cheer up to become/make happier

Because of living in the pole, Andrey cheers up like a crazy when he’s able to see the sun.

  1. Clear up to tidy

I always clear my room up before I go to work.

  1. Come across to find something by chance

Finally I come across some difficult words, which I’ve been searching for for a long time.

  1. Come back (from) to return (from)

The husband never comes back home early after work as he always visits his hidden girlfriend first.

  1. Come on to be quicker

Since my mother wakes up late, she must come on or she’ll miss the important meeting.

  1. Come out to be published

Tizziano Ferro, a popular Italian singer, came out with his big secret, which has been buried along his successful career.

  1. Cross out to draw a line through something written

The children must cross out to answer the exercises.

  1. Cut down (on) to do less of something (smoking, etc.)

Grandpa cuts down on the numbers of cigarettes he smokes to decrease the risk of cancer.

  1. Cut off to disconnect (phone, electricity, etc.)

My electricity is cut off since I haven’t paid the bill for 2 months.

  1. Cut off to completely remove by cutting

The mango has a lot of worms! I’ve to cut off some of its parts.

  1. Do up to button/zip up a piece of clothing

You’ve to do up your clothes since it’s getting colder.

  1. Eat out to eat at a restaurant

He never eats out since he only earns $100 every month; Furthermore he can’t afford to buy basic daily needs.

  1. Fall down to trip and fall

The woman fell down yesterday when she was trying to climb the mountain and hurt her vulnerable backbone.

  1. Fall out (with) to have an argument with someone and stop being friends

It’s such a pity that I fell out with my best friend and now we stop communicating.

  1. Fill in to add information in the spaces on a form, etc.

You ought to fill this form in or you’ll miss the class.

  1. Fill up to make something completely full

My cat fills his stomach up with a lot of expensive cat food.

  1. Find out to discover information, etc.

It’s very difficult to find out the street since I’m not familiar with the area.

Multitasking Damages Your Brain and Your Career, New Studies Suggest

Multitasking

You’ve likely heard that multitasking is problematic, but new studies show that it kills your performance and may even damage your brain. Research conducted at Standford University found that multitasking is less productive than doing a single thing at a time. The researchers also found that people who are regularly bombarded with several streams of electronic information cannot pay attention, recall information, or switch from one job to another as well as those who complete one task at a time.

A Special Skill?

But what if some people have a special gift for multitasking? The Stanford researchers compared groups of people based on their tendency to multitask and their belief that it helps their performance. They found that heavy multitaskers—those who multitask a lot and feel that it boosts their performance—were actuallyworse at multitasking than those who like to do a single thing at a time. The frequent multitaskers performed worse because they had more trouble organizing their thoughts and filtering out irrelevant information, and they were slower at switching from one task to another. Ouch.

Multitasking reduces your efficiency and performance because your brain can only focus on one thing at a time. When you try to do two things at once, your brain lacks the capacity to perform both tasks successfully.

Multitasking Lowers IQ

Research also shows that, in addition to slowing you down, multitasking lowers your IQ. A study at the University of London found that participants who multitasked during cognitive tasks experienced IQ score declines that were similar to what they’d expect if they had smoked marijuana or stayed up all night. IQ drops of 15 points for multitasking men lowered their scores to the average range of an 8-year-old child.

So the next time you’re writing your boss an email during a meeting, remember that your cognitive capacity is being diminished to the point that you might as well let an 8-year-old write it for you.

Brain Damage From Multitasking

It was long believed that cognitive impairment from multitasking was temporary, but new research suggests otherwise. Researchers at the University of Sussex in the UK compared the amount of time people spend on multiple devices (such as texting while watching TV) to MRI scans of their brains. They found that high multitaskers had less brain density in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region responsible for empathy as well as cognitive and emotional control.

While more research is needed to determine if multitasking is physically damaging the brain (versus existing brain damage that predisposes people to multitask), it’s clear that multitasking has negative effects. Neuroscientist Kep Kee Loh, the study’s lead author, explained the implications: “I feel that it is important to create an awareness that the way we are interacting with the devices might be changing the way we think and these changes might be occurring at the level of brain structure.”

Learning From Multitasking

If you’re prone to multitasking, this is not a habit you’ll want to indulge—it clearly slows you down and decreases the quality of your work. Even if it doesn’t cause brain damage, allowing yourself to multitask will fuel any existing difficulties you have with concentration, organization, and attention to detail.

Multitasking in meetings and other social settings indicates low Self- and Social Awareness, two emotional intelligence (EQ) skills that are critical to success at work. TalentSmart has tested more than a million people and found that 90% of top performers have high EQs. If multitasking does indeed damage the anterior cingulate cortex (a key brain region for EQ) as current research suggests, it will lower your EQ in the process.

So every time you multitask you aren’t just harming your performance in the moment; you may very well be damaging an area of your brain that’s critical to your future success at work.

Source

Poor Little Cat

Yesterday, I was going outside to buy credit for my cellphone. I usually go to the nearest market.

In the street, I glanced upon a poor little cat that was lying down, and she seemed very weak. I didn’t understand. Where did this cat come from?

After buying credit for my cellphone, I came back and saw that the kitten was still there. Since I couldn’t stand the thought of seeing it suffer and leave it there, I took the cat home. The people around stared at me as if I was a little robber, but I didn’t care what they thought.

At home, I tried to give her some milk, but this cat was really very weak. I tried to put a baby’s bottle to her mouth but it was difficult, because she was too weak. I had an idea; maybe this cat was too hungry. Then, without any doubt, I went to a little restaurant near home. I bought a fish. The seller asked me why I only bought a fish and didn’t get rice to go with it. I just smiled at her cause I was too shy to explain. And I thought that it was not necessary to explain.

Coming back home, I gave delicious fish to the cat, but she didn’t want to eat this delicious fish. I tried to feed her with my hand and make her stand but, she even was too weak to stand!

Finally, I came to the conclusion that this cat had been poisoned by someone, or maybe she had eaten poison for mice, as the taste of fish was very delicious for any mammals. I saw clearly that she had breathing difficulties, and she used her throat to breath! I saw those her eyes were empty without any hopes to live any longer. It seemed that she had known she would die soon…

“No cat! We have just met several minutes ago, and I will never let you leave me! NEVER! WAKE UP!” I screamed loudly while making her stand.

I tried many different ways to make her wake up, but the result was always nothing…

I was struggling to help her and realized that an hour had gone past. Because of this, I was already late for an appointment with my friend to have lunch at his house [By the way, he always cooks perfectly and I worship all of his food], so I left this poor cat on my terrace. I let her lie down without any power to save her.

After having lunch and surfing on internet at his house, i went back home and saw that cat has already died! I was really sad, but I had known that it’s a consequence she could not avoid. I brought her to the garden and buried her. She didn’t deserve to be thrown to the river near home. For me, the cat is like a human, because they have feelings, too, just like us. It was one of the saddest days I have had ever pass. All I could do was to just pray, sincerely with my tears, that she would be okay in the afterlife.