Tag Archive | study

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 3)

Part III

  1. Log on(to) to connect to the internet/a website

I open the new website, but I can’t log on; Maybe it’s under construction.

  1. Look after to take care of

Looking after a kitten is not an easy job.

  1. Look up to try to find information in a book, etc.

It rarely happens to me looking up unknown words in the dictionary since I’m getting used to search for information in the online dictionary.

  1. Make up to invent an explanation, excuse, etc.

What an ignorant boy! I can’t make up his unforgiveable mistakes.

  1. Move in to start living in a new house, etc.

I’m moving in Kyiv next month.

  1. Pay back to return money (to someone)

I feel ashamed to the owner of pet shop since I’ve never paid the money back that I borrowed two weeks ago.

  1. Pick up to lift something from the floor, a table, etc.

Kids, pick your toys up and start studying!

  1. Point out to tell someone important information

I point you out that I work every day; It’s the reason why I can’t meet you so often.

  1. Print out to make a paper copy of something on a computer

I seldom buy original books from e-bay. I only search for the free downloadable e-book versions and print them out; It’s much cheaper!

  1. Pull off to break by pulling

The careless dentist pulled my son’s tooth off by mistake yesterday; Now, I accuse and sconce him to pay $3.000.000

  1. Put away to return something to where it belongs

Thanks for borrowing the beautiful flowers; You don’t need to worry because  I’ve already put them away in the vase.

  1. Put back to return something to where it was

I want to put this book back; but i forget which rack it belongs to.

  1. Put down to stop holding

My girlfriend put her hand down from my arm when she came across her ex.

  1. Put off to delay to a later time

To put off is similar with to procrastinate, the words which I hate very much.

  1. Put on to gain (weight)

If I were you, i would put on. It’s terrible! I only can see bone and skin.

  1. Put on to start wearing (a piece of clothing)

Put your jackets and scarf on if you don’t want to get cold outside.

  1. Put out to make something stop burning

Unfortunately, the unexperienced firefighters couldn’t put the ferocious fire out resulting many ablaze electronics burnt like those in the hell.

  1. Put up to put something on a wall (ex. a picture)

We’re going to take a valentine’s day competition. Notice that the best love letters will be put up in the lobby.

  1. Read out to say something out loud which you are reading

If you want to remember the new vocabulary fast, read the words out.

  1. Rip up to tear into pieces

This illegal application letter should be ripped up asap to avoid fights.

  1. Rub out to remove with a rubber

The imprudent students can’t rub out his wrong answers since he’s written everything in ink.

  1. Run away (from) to escape by running

The little girl screams and runs away from a giant monster.

  1. Run out (of) to not have any left

Damn, we’re on the way to the jungle and now we run out of the fuel!

  1. Save up (for) to save money (for a specific purpose)

I’ve been saving up for 1 year for taking a vacation abroad.

  1. Send off to make a player leave a game

What a sly player! I wish the referee sent him off.

  1. Set off to start a journey

Finally I get my long holiday and I’m able to set off to explore the beauty of my country.

  1. Set up to start (a business, organization, etc.)

This unexperienced man had set up a leather company, but he failed in only 3 months.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 2)

Part II

  1. Get away with to escape punishment for

The villain, who has been in the prison for three times, had robbed the bank, but he got away with it.

  1. Get in(to) to enter a car

What a careless man! Take the purse then get into the car quickly!

  1. Get off to leave a bus, train etc.

I always get off the school bus at 7.30

  1. Get on (with) to have a good relationship (with)

Melannie can get on with everybody easily.

  1. Get on (to) to enter a bus, train etc.

You must show the ticket to the conductor after getting on the train.

  1. Get out (of) to leave a car, building, room, etc.

Quick! Get out of the car or you’ll become roast corpse!

  1. Get over to recover from (an illness)

I usually need a week to get over from flu.

  1. Get up to leave your bed

What a lazy girl! She’s always getting up after 8!

  1. Give away to give something free of charge

They’ll give a bar of chocolate away if you show that today is your birthday.

  1. Give back to return something you’ve taken/borrowed

I never give the books back to the library before the due date.

  1. Give up to stop doing something you do regularly

Enough already! I give up playing video games 3 hours a day!

  1. Go away to leave a place/someone

“You are disgusting! Telling my big secret to everyone without feeling any guilty. Now, go away!”

  1. Go back (to) to return (to)

I believe that someday I will go back to meet you in the promised land.

  1. Go off to no longer be fresh

These avocadoes have already gone off! I can’t consume them or I’ll get matters with my belly.

  1. Go on to continue happening or doing something

I go on with my homework in the classroom despite being scolded by teachers.

  1. Go on to happen

Please, don’t fire me! I assure that this pathetic experience will never go on anymore in the future.

  1. Go out to stop burning

The electronic centre, which I’m used to visiting, burnt at night and didn’t go out until the firefighter came late.

  1. Go out with to be the boyfriend/girlfriend of

Matthew is going out with Katie for 3 years now, after they met on a blind date.

  1. Grow up to become older (for children)

My cats grow up fast as I give them a lot of protein and meat.

  1. Hang on to wait

Hang on, I must answer to my mother’s question first.

  1. Hang up to put clothes in a wardrobe, etc.

I can’t hang up my clothes since I don’t have any wardrobes.

  1. Hang up to put the receiver down to end a phone call

I don’t like people who hang up without saying ‘good-bye’, it sounds rude to me!

  1. Have on to wear (a piece of clothing)

The cats have cute clothes on and are ready to hang out with my dog.

  1. Hurry up to do something more quickly

If I go with my father, I won’t need to hurry up preparing the equipment for picnic since he’s such a slow person.

  1. Join in to participate, take part

This time tomorrow I will be joining in the play.

  1. Keep out to prevent from entering

You can’t step on the grass, there’s plank written “keep out!”

  1. Leave out to not include

I don’t like Stanislav and Slava, so I leave them out attending my party.

  1. Let down to disappoint

My students’ bad behaviour always let me down.

  1. Lie down to start lying (on a bed, etc.)

I’m so tired that I lie down without take my jacket down.

  1. Log off to disconnect from the Internet/a website

I don’t know how to log off from this messy website since the appearance isn’t rather user friendly.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 1)

This is the list of phrasal verbs from English exercise book “Destination B1” – Malcolm Mann and Steve Taylore-Knowles published by MacMillan. Note that I create my own sentence from each phrasal verb.

Part I

  1. Add up to find the total of

I add up all the books, which I’ve bought from the bookstore, and give the bills to my mother to get reimbursement.

  1. Blow up to explode

His inventions have been blowing up for the last 3 months and make him rich abruptly.

  1. Break down to stop working (for a machine)

The sewing machine broke down yesterday, so that the supervisor must call someone to service the machine and fix the issues to fulfill demands before the due date.

  1. Break in(to) to enter illegally

My mother-in-law’s house was broken into by a stranger when the family was not there yesterday.

  1. Bring up to take care of a child until he or she becomes an adult

Since my grandmother didn’t have any children, she brought up my mother on her own.

  1. Build up to increase

The more you practice English the more you build up your skill.

  1. Call back to ring again on the phone

You sound busy, I’ll call you back later.

  1. Call off to cancel

The huge riot calls off the concert in the square.

  1. Calm down to become/make calmer

As the cat is frightened for seeing the catastrophe, it runs up and down everywhere and is difficult to calm down.

  1. Carry on to continue

I’ll never stop carrying on my journey to success.

  1. Catch up (with) to reach the same point/level as

The less smart students find great difficulties to catch up with their friends in the classroom.

  1. Cheer up to become/make happier

Because of living in the pole, Andrey cheers up like a crazy when he’s able to see the sun.

  1. Clear up to tidy

I always clear my room up before I go to work.

  1. Come across to find something by chance

Finally I come across some difficult words, which I’ve been searching for for a long time.

  1. Come back (from) to return (from)

The husband never comes back home early after work as he always visits his hidden girlfriend first.

  1. Come on to be quicker

Since my mother wakes up late, she must come on or she’ll miss the important meeting.

  1. Come out to be published

Tizziano Ferro, a popular Italian singer, came out with his big secret, which has been buried along his successful career.

  1. Cross out to draw a line through something written

The children must cross out to answer the exercises.

  1. Cut down (on) to do less of something (smoking, etc.)

Grandpa cuts down on the numbers of cigarettes he smokes to decrease the risk of cancer.

  1. Cut off to disconnect (phone, electricity, etc.)

My electricity is cut off since I haven’t paid the bill for 2 months.

  1. Cut off to completely remove by cutting

The mango has a lot of worms! I’ve to cut off some of its parts.

  1. Do up to button/zip up a piece of clothing

You’ve to do up your clothes since it’s getting colder.

  1. Eat out to eat at a restaurant

He never eats out since he only earns $100 every month; Furthermore he can’t afford to buy basic daily needs.

  1. Fall down to trip and fall

The woman fell down yesterday when she was trying to climb the mountain and hurt her vulnerable backbone.

  1. Fall out (with) to have an argument with someone and stop being friends

It’s such a pity that I fell out with my best friend and now we stop communicating.

  1. Fill in to add information in the spaces on a form, etc.

You ought to fill this form in or you’ll miss the class.

  1. Fill up to make something completely full

My cat fills his stomach up with a lot of expensive cat food.

  1. Find out to discover information, etc.

It’s very difficult to find out the street since I’m not familiar with the area.

How to Talk About the Economy

Business English Economy

 GDP – Gross Domestic Product is the total monetary value of goods and services produced within a country.
 Fiscal is anything to do with financial matter (especially with taxes)
 Quarter is three months (ex. January February March)
 Currency is money used in a country or a region.
 Budget is to make a plan on how to spend a certain amount of money.
 Deficit means need more money than one has
 Surplus means when government or company has more money than budget
 Inflation is when prices of goods and services go up but wages stay the same
 Deflation is when the prices go down and the value of currency goes up
 In stagnation usually there’s hardly any movement, up or down. It means everythihng stays more or less the same
 Credit (rating) is ability to borrow money (ex. Someone can pay a car by monthly payment)
 Debt, owing money to someone
 Recession means that the economy is in decline
 Depression is a big decline of economy
 Bubble, the prices of something growing quickly for a particular reason and then burst.
 Boom => growing (up)
 bust => shrinking (down)

Exercises
1. Recently, housing markets have experienced a major _______, with prices reaching higher than $1 million in many areas.
a. boom
b. bust
c. recession
d. deflation

2. Although every government tries to run its economy on a ______, most end up spending to a deficit instead.
a. boom
b. depression
c. stagnation
d. surplus

3. A CFO, or Chief Financial Officer, is responsible for a company’s ________ strength.
a. budget
b. fiscal
c. currency
d. bubble

4. After a slow start to the year, the economy finally showed signs of recovery in the third _______, growing by close to 1% from July to September.
a. fiscal
b. budget
c. quarter
d. bubble

5. A period of negative economic growth that lasts two consecutive quarters is technically called a _________.
a. boom
b. depression
c. recession
d. stagnation

6. Governments and businesses set a _______ for the following year in order to control their spending.
a. deficit
b. budget
c. currency
d. GDP

7. Analysts have predicted that the current housing _________ will soon burst, as prices have reached too high for most people to afford.
a. bubble
b. bust
c. depression
d. inflation

8. A _____ occurs when a government spends more than it makes in revenues over the course of a year.
a. quarter
b. deficit
c. surplus
d. budget

9. While _____ has raised prices on almost everything, salaries have remained stagnant, leading many people into debt.
a. recession
b. stagnation
c. inflation
d. deflation

10. Anything that you owe someone else is called _______.
a. bubble
b. fiscal
c. debt
d. currency
e. crap

key A D B C C B A B C C

Inversion

 

Inversion

Inversion => Change the order of something

Using with negative expressions (Verb – Subject – Verb):
Not only did he win, but he also broke the record
Under no circumtances should you call her (=> in no situation, should you call)
The mayor of Toronto refused to resign, nor do we expect him to

In a very formal style (you can also find these in essays)
Should you need any help, don’t hesitate to call (=>Should = if [more formal])
Had I known you were coming (If I had known you were coming…)

Comparatives:
John speaks Chinese, as does Lucy
More impostant than love is money

Some expressions:
Here comes Jane.
Man, is it cold out! (=> the function is only to emphasize)
Are you sure? (notice that in all question sentences, inversion happens)

EXERCISE
1. “Had I not fallen asleep before the end of the movie, I’d have found out who killed the Minister.”
This sentence can be rewritten as:
a) If I didn’t fall asleep before the end of the movie, I will find out who killed the Minister.
b) If I hadn’t fallen asleep before the end of the movie, I’d have found out who killed the Minister.
c) If I’d known who killed the Minister, I would not have fallen asleep near the end of the movie.
d) I know who killed the Minister. It was the butler.

2. Complete the following sentence:
You do not have to say anything to the police, nor_______________
a) are you required to sign any documents.
b) you are required to sign any documents.
c) you have to sign anything.

3. Not only _____________ pass the test, but he got the highest mark in the class!
a) Joe did
b) Joe didn’t
c) didn’t Joe
d) did Joe

4. What is the subject of the following sentence?
“Here comes Michael.”
a) Here
b) comes
c) Michael

5. Which of the following sentences uses inversion to express disbelief, shock, or strong emotion?
a) He is a such a man!
b) Man, is he brave!
c) He is a brave man.
d) Is he brave?

6. “More important than your application will be your interview.”
What does this sentence mean?
a) Your application will be more important than your interview.
b) Your interview will be more important than your application.
c) More importantly, your application will then be your interview.

7. Under no circumstances _________ reach your hand out of the bus.
a) you can
b) you shouldn’t
c) should you
d) shoulder you

8. “Should you need some advice, call me.”
This sentence can be rewritten as:
a) Call me if you need some advice.
b) If you call me, I’ll advise you.
c) Should you call me for advice?
d) Take my advice, call me.

9. Not only __________ watch the lesson, but you did the quiz as well!
a) you did
b) you don’t
c) did you
d) have you

Check your answer: b a d c b b c a c

Evolution & Migration (03)

Bold Words are target Words

  Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
1 adapt adaptation adaptable
2 difersify diverseness [nc] diverse diversely
3 evolve evolution; evolutionist
4 feature feature
5 generation generational
6 inherent inherently
7 migrate migration migratory
8 physical physical physically
9 process process
10 survive survivor; survival

 

Definitions and Samples

  1. Adapt v. To change one’s behavior so that it’s easier to live in a particular place or situation

My cats could adapt to the new mileu since we had been nomadic.

  1. Diverse adj. Various

I always give daily diverse food to my pets to avoid boredom.

  1. Evolve v. To change or develop slowly often into a better, more complex, or more advanced state

It is believed that lions have evolved from cats.

  1. Feature n. An interesting or important part, quality, ability, etc.

My new tablet has special features including water resist with the result that I can use it every where.

  1. Generation n. A group of people born and living during the same time

Today’s people behavior toward careless nature may harm the future generation.

  1. Inherent adj. Belonging to the basic nature of someone or something

Licking its delicate fur and sleeping for 18 hours a day are inherent in any kind of cat.

  1. Migration n. Movement from one place to live or work in another

America government allows yearly mass migration for 50.000 lucky people around the world to change their qualities of life.

  1. Physical adj. Relating to the body of a creature

Our next door children always do a physical abuse to my poor kitten.

  1. Process n. A series of actions that produce something

Making a high quality shoe needs a complicated process, though.

  1. Survive v. To continue living

I don’t think I can survive without playing video games every day!

 

 

 

Disaster (02)

Bold Words are target Words

  Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
1 anticipate anticipation anticipatory
2 catastrophe catastrophic catastrophically
3 collide collision
4 erupt eruption
5 famine
6 flood flood
7 impact impact
8 persevere; persist persistent
9 plunge plunge
10 unleash

 

Definitions and Samples

  1. Anticipate v. To think of something that will or might happen in the future

He anticipates his retiring moment by investing money in building a business venture.

  1. Catastrophic adj. A terrible calamity

Many people in Aceh died in a catastrophic tsunami on December 2004.

  1. Collide v. To hit something or each other with strong force

My plan to visit Bali collides with a company tour.

  1. Eruption n. A sudden blow-up

Mountain Tangkuban Parahu released a vigorous eruption and caused death to the local inhabitants in 1829.

  1. Famine n. A drastic food shortage

The victims caused by a great famine in Russia have reached to 5 million people.

  1. Flood n. An excessive amount of water covering an area

The cruel flood occurs in the southern area of Bandung yearly.

  1. Impact n. A powerful influence or effect

His speech’s given an impact on my life.

  1. Persevere v. To continue doing something even though it’s difficult

I persevere to learn English regularly despite a busy life.

  1. Plunge v. To fall suddenly from a high place; To drop abruptly in amount

They plunged into cold water from the highness and enjoyed themselves.

  1. Unleash v. To remove a leash from (an animal) so that it can freely run, attack someone, etc

I unleash my cat from home every evening, so that he can meet and play with his friends freely.

The 7 Cs of Communication A Checklist for Clear Communication

Think of how often you communicate with people during your day.

You write emails, facilitate meetings, participate in conference calls, create reports, devise presentations, debate with your colleagues… the list goes on.

We can spend almost our entire day communicating.

So, how can we provide a huge boost to our productivity? We can make sure that we communicate in the clearest, most effective way possible.

This is why the 7 Cs of Communication are helpful. The 7 Cs provide a checklist for making sure that your meetings  , emails  , conference calls  , reports  , and presentations   are well constructed and clear – so your audience gets your message.


According to the 7 Cs, communication needs to be:

In this article, we look at each of the 7 Cs of Communication, and we’ll illustrate each element with both good and bad examples.

  1. Clear

When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in communicating with this person? If you’re not sure, then your audience won’t be sure either.

To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that it’s easy for your reader to understand your meaning. People shouldn’t have to “read between the lines” and make assumptions on their own to understand what you’re trying to say.

Bad Example

Hi John,

I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel, who’s working in your department. He’s a great asset, and I’d like to talk to you more about him when you have time.

Best,

Skip

What is this email about? Well, we’re not sure. First, if there are multiple Daniels in John’s department, John won’t know who Skip is talking about.

Next, what is Daniel doing, specifically, that’s so great? We don’t know that either. It’s so vague that John will definitely have to write back for more information.

Last, what is the purpose of this email? Does Skip simply want to have an idle chat about Daniel, or is there some more specific goal here? There’s no sense of purpose to this message, so it’s a bit confusing.

Good Example

Hi John,

I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel Kedar, who’s working in your department. In recent weeks, he’s helped the IT department through several pressing deadlines on his own time.

We’ve got a tough upgrade project due to run over the next three months, and his knowledge and skills would prove invaluable. Could we please have his help with this work?

I’d appreciate speaking with you about this. When is it best to call you to discuss this further?

Best wishes,

Skip

This second message is much clearer, because the reader has the information he needs to take action.


  1. Concise

When you’re concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your audience doesn’t want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.

  • Are there any adjectives or “filler words” that you can delete? You can often eliminate words like “for instance,” “you see,” “definitely,” “kind of,” “literally,” “basically,” or “I mean.”
  • Are there any unnecessary sentences?
  • Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways?

Bad Example

Hi Matt,

I wanted to touch base with you about the email marketing campaign we kind of sketched out last Thursday. I really think that our target market is definitely going to want to see the company’s philanthropic efforts. I think that could make a big impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a sales pitch.

For instance, if we talk about the company’s efforts to become sustainable, as well as the charity work we’re doing in local schools, then the people that we want to attract are going to remember our message longer. The impact will just be greater.

What do you think?

Jessica

This email is too long! There’s repetition, and there’s plenty of “filler” taking up space.

Good Example

Watch what happens when we’re concise and take out the filler words:

Hi Matt,

I wanted to quickly discuss the email marketing campaign that we analyzed last Thursday. Our target market will want to know about the company’s philanthropic efforts, especially our goals to become sustainable and help local schools.

This would make a far greater impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a traditional sales pitch.

What do you think?

Jessica


  1. Concrete

When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you’re telling them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there’s laser-like focus. Your message is solid.

Bad Example

Consider this advertising copy:

The Lunchbox Wizard will save you time every day.

A statement like this probably won’t sell many of these products. There’s no passion, no vivid detail, nothing that creates emotion, and nothing that tells people in the audience why they should care. This message isn’t concrete enough to make a difference.

Good Example

How much time do you spend every day packing your kids’ lunches? No more! Just take a complete Lunchbox Wizard from your refrigerator each day to give your kids a healthy lunch and have more time to play or read with them!

This copy is better because there are vivid images. The audience can picture spending quality time with their kids – and what parent could argue with that? And mentioning that the product is stored in the refrigerator explains how the idea is practical. The message has come alive through these details.


  1. Correct

When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free communication.

  • Do the technical terms you use fit your audience’s level of education or knowledge?
  • Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell checkers won’t catch everything.
  • Are all names and titles spelled correctly?

Bad Example

Hi Daniel,

Thanks so much for meeting me at lunch today! I enjoyed our conservation, and I’m looking forward to moving ahead on our project. I’m sure that the two-weak deadline won’t be an issue.

Thanks again, and I’ll speak to you soon!

Best,

Jack Miller

If you read that example fast, then you might not have caught any errors. But on closer inspection, you’ll find two. Can you see them?

The first error is that the writer accidentally typed conservation instead of conversation. This common error can happen when you’re typing too fast. The other error is using weak instead of week.

Again, spell checkers won’t catch word errors like this, which is why it’s so important to proofread everything!


  1. Coherent

When your communication is coherent, it’s logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent.

Bad Example

Traci,

I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle to proof, and she wanted to make sure you knew about the department meeting we’re having this Friday. We’ll be creating an outline for the new employee handbook.

Thanks,

Michelle

As you can see, this email doesn’t communicate its point very well. Where is Michelle’s feedback on Traci’s report? She started to mention it, but then she changed the topic to Friday’s meeting.

Good Example

Hi Traci,

I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle to proof, and she let me know that there are a few changes that you’ll need to make. She’ll email you her detailed comments later this afternoon.

Thanks,

Michelle

Notice that in the good example, Michelle does not mention Friday’s meeting. This is because the meeting reminder should be an entirely separate email. This way, Traci can delete the report feedback email after she makes her changes, but save the email about the meeting as her reminder to attend. Each email has only one main topic.


  1. Complete

In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take action.

  • Does your message include a “call to action,” so that your audience clearly knows what you want them to do?
  • Have you included all relevant information – contact names, dates, times, locations, and so on?

Bad Example

Hi everyone,

I just wanted to send you all a reminder about the meeting we’re having tomorrow!

See you then,

Chris

This message is not complete, for obvious reasons. What meeting? When is it? Where? Chris has left his team without the necessary information.

Good Example

Hi everyone,

I just wanted to remind you about tomorrow’s meeting on the new telecommuting policies. The meeting will be at 10:00 a.m. in the second-level conference room. Please let me know if you can’t attend.

See you then,

Chris


  1. Courteous

Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones. You keep your reader’s viewpoint in mind, and you’re empathetic to their needs.

Bad Example

Jeff,

I wanted to let you know that I don’t appreciate how your team always monopolizes the discussion at our weekly meetings. I have a lot of projects, and I really need time to get my team’s progress discussed as well. So far, thanks to your department, I haven’t been able to do that. Can you make sure they make time for me and my team next week?

Thanks,

Phil

Well, that’s hardly courteous! Messages like this can potentially start office-wide fights. And this email does nothing but create bad feelings, and lower productivity and morale. A little bit of courtesy, even in difficult situations, can go a long way.

Good Example

Hi Jeff,

I wanted to write you a quick note to ask a favor. During our weekly meetings, your team does an excellent job of highlighting their progress. But this uses some of the time available for my team to highlight theirs. I’d really appreciate it if you could give my team a little extra time each week to fully cover their progress reports.

Thanks so much, and please let me know if there’s anything I can do for you!

Best,

Phil

What a difference! This email is courteous and friendly, and it has little chance of spreading bad feelings around the office.

Note:

There are a few variations of the 7 Cs of Communication:

  • Credible– Does your message improve or highlight your credibility  ? This is especially important when communicating with an audience that doesn’t know much about you.
  • Creative– Does your message communicate creatively? Creative communication helps keep your audience engaged.

Key Points

All of us communicate every day. The better we communicate, the more credibility we’ll have with our clients, our boss, and our colleagues.

Use the 7 Cs of Communication as a checklist for all of your communication. By doing this, you’ll stay clear, concise, concrete, correct, coherent, complete, and courteous.

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Business English: Making Appointments

Being able to make, change and cancel appointments is an important skill in business English. Here are some expressions you can use to do this concisely and clearly.

Asking for an appointment

(formal situations)
I would like to arrange an appointment to discuss….
Please would you indicate a suitable time and place to meet?

(neutral)
Would it be possible to meet on (date) at your / our offices to discuss…?

(informal)
Can we meet (up) to talk about…?

Suggesting a time

(neutral)
Would Tuesday suit you?
Would you be available on Tuesday?

(informal)
What about…?
Let’s say…

Agreeing to an appointment

(formal)
Thank you for your email. I would be available to discuss…. on (date) at (time and place)

(neutral / informal)
Tuesday sounds fine. Shall we say around (time) at (place)?

Saying a time is not convenient

(formal)
Unfortunately, I will be away on business during the week of July 6 – 11, so I will be unable to meet you then. However, if you were available in the following week, I would be glad to arrange a meeting with you.

I will be out of the office on Wednesday and Thursday, but I will be available on Friday afternoon.

Cancelling an appointment

(formal)
Unfortunately, due to some unforeseen business, I will be unable to keep our appointment for tomorrow afternoon.

Would it be possible to arrange another time later in the week?

(neutral)
I’m afraid that I have to cancel our meeting on Wednesday, as something unexpected has come up.

Would you be free to meet early next week?

Apologising

I apologise for any inconvenience. (formal)
I’m sorry about cancelling. (informal)

Asking for confirmation

Please confirm if this date and time is suitable / convenient for you. (neutral)
Can you let me know if this is OK for you? (informal)

Writing to someone you don’t know

If you don’t know the person, you’ll need to give some background information about yourself or your company.

I am… and I would be interested to meet you to discuss…

I would be grateful if you could indicate a convenient time to meet during this week.

I look forward to hearing from you.

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Rights and responsibilities at work

Just starting a job? Here are some useful words and phrases to describe your rights and responsibilities at work.

Most employees and employers will sign a contract, which sets out terms and conditions, salary and holiday entitlements, along with procedures forgrievances or dismissal. As contracts are legally binding, both sides should comply with these procedures and with the terms of the contract.

In some countries there is minimum wage legislation (meaning workers cannot be paid under this limit), as well as health and safety laws to protect employees from industrial and workplace accidents. Many workers (though often not those in “sensitive” sectors) can join a union, which (in return for an annual membership fee) will help to protect the workers’ rights and will negotiate pay increases for its members, or ballot (organise) strikes.

Over the last 100 years or so, workers, unions and politicians have fought for an increasing number of rights, such asanti-discrimination (making it illegal for employers to discriminate against workers on the basis of their gender, religion, sexuality or disability); maternity (and paternity) leavesick leave, and pension contributions. Some practices (such as child labour) are illegal in many countries, although the fight against exploitation still continues. A big issue now in the UK is that of unpaid internships (where graduates work for nothing except the chance to gain experience).

If employers fall foul of employment law (i.e. break the law), employees can take their employers to court to win damages. For example, this could occur for cases of unfair dismissal (illegally sacking someone), or constructive dismissal (where the employee is forced to resign).

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