Tag Archive | vocabulary

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 4)

Part IV

  1. Share out to give a part of something to a group of people

This presentation file is going to be shared out later after I finish the class.

  1. Shut up to stop talking, stop making a noise

Kids, shut up saying bad words or I’ll clean your mouths with soap.

  1. Sit down to (start to) sit

I let the grandma sits down. I can’t see her standing up in the bus.

  1. Sort out to solve a problem

I’m unable to sort this puzzle out. It’s too difficult for me.

  1. Speak up to talk more loudly so someone can hear you

Your voice is very low and I can’t hear you. Could you speak up, please!

  1. Split up to end a relationship

My bad friendship was not too good; We decided to split up.

  1. Stand up to (start to) stand

Relax your body and begin with standing up.

  1. Stay up to go to bed late

I have to cram and stay up.

  1. Take away to remove

Liz has taken the maggots away from her scalp.

  1. Take back to return something to the place it came from

It’s better for you to take the books back.

  1. Take down to remove (from a high place)

I’m too small and short to take the books down from the highest line of the shelf.

  1. Take off to leave the ground

It takes a long time for the plane to take off.

  1. Take off to remove (a piece of clothing)

Let’s take all your clothes off and swim in the river. No one can see you here.

  1. Take over to take control of (a business, etc.)

The uneducated woman takes over this company! I don’t believe it.

  1. Take up to start (a hobby, sport, etc.)

Taking up stamp collecting is a boring hobby.

  1. Throw away to put something in a rubbish bin

Can you throw this plastic away! It’s been there for 3 days and emits a smelly odor.

  1. Try on to put on (a piece of clothing) to see how it looks and if it fits

He spends an hour only to try cheap clothes on.

  1. Turn down to lower the volume of

I’m studying for the final test tomorrow. Can you turn the radio down!

  1. Turn off to stop a machine working

Turn the TV off and start studying!

  1. Turn on to start a machine working

It’s so boring, I’m trying to turn the TV on, but I realize that the electric has been cut off.

  1. Turn over to turn something so the other side is towards you

Time is over for this section, now you can turn the paper over.

  1. Turn up to increase the volume of

Hey, it’s my favorite song, turn it up!

  1. Wake up to stop being asleep

I’ve to wake up at 5 am every day.

  1. Wash up to wash plates, cups, cutlery, etc.

Kostya helps me to wash up after the big party. He’s very helpful!

  1. Watch out to be careful

Watch out! The snake is going to bite you.

  1. Work out to find the solution to a problem, etc.

I keep working out to connect my computer to the internet.

  1. Write down to write information on a piece of paper

Listen carefully and write the requirements down; It’ll not be repeated twice.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 3)

Part III

  1. Log on(to) to connect to the internet/a website

I open the new website, but I can’t log on; Maybe it’s under construction.

  1. Look after to take care of

Looking after a kitten is not an easy job.

  1. Look up to try to find information in a book, etc.

It rarely happens to me looking up unknown words in the dictionary since I’m getting used to search for information in the online dictionary.

  1. Make up to invent an explanation, excuse, etc.

What an ignorant boy! I can’t make up his unforgiveable mistakes.

  1. Move in to start living in a new house, etc.

I’m moving in Kyiv next month.

  1. Pay back to return money (to someone)

I feel ashamed to the owner of pet shop since I’ve never paid the money back that I borrowed two weeks ago.

  1. Pick up to lift something from the floor, a table, etc.

Kids, pick your toys up and start studying!

  1. Point out to tell someone important information

I point you out that I work every day; It’s the reason why I can’t meet you so often.

  1. Print out to make a paper copy of something on a computer

I seldom buy original books from e-bay. I only search for the free downloadable e-book versions and print them out; It’s much cheaper!

  1. Pull off to break by pulling

The careless dentist pulled my son’s tooth off by mistake yesterday; Now, I accuse and sconce him to pay $3.000.000

  1. Put away to return something to where it belongs

Thanks for borrowing the beautiful flowers; You don’t need to worry because  I’ve already put them away in the vase.

  1. Put back to return something to where it was

I want to put this book back; but i forget which rack it belongs to.

  1. Put down to stop holding

My girlfriend put her hand down from my arm when she came across her ex.

  1. Put off to delay to a later time

To put off is similar with to procrastinate, the words which I hate very much.

  1. Put on to gain (weight)

If I were you, i would put on. It’s terrible! I only can see bone and skin.

  1. Put on to start wearing (a piece of clothing)

Put your jackets and scarf on if you don’t want to get cold outside.

  1. Put out to make something stop burning

Unfortunately, the unexperienced firefighters couldn’t put the ferocious fire out resulting many ablaze electronics burnt like those in the hell.

  1. Put up to put something on a wall (ex. a picture)

We’re going to take a valentine’s day competition. Notice that the best love letters will be put up in the lobby.

  1. Read out to say something out loud which you are reading

If you want to remember the new vocabulary fast, read the words out.

  1. Rip up to tear into pieces

This illegal application letter should be ripped up asap to avoid fights.

  1. Rub out to remove with a rubber

The imprudent students can’t rub out his wrong answers since he’s written everything in ink.

  1. Run away (from) to escape by running

The little girl screams and runs away from a giant monster.

  1. Run out (of) to not have any left

Damn, we’re on the way to the jungle and now we run out of the fuel!

  1. Save up (for) to save money (for a specific purpose)

I’ve been saving up for 1 year for taking a vacation abroad.

  1. Send off to make a player leave a game

What a sly player! I wish the referee sent him off.

  1. Set off to start a journey

Finally I get my long holiday and I’m able to set off to explore the beauty of my country.

  1. Set up to start (a business, organization, etc.)

This unexperienced man had set up a leather company, but he failed in only 3 months.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 2)

Part II

  1. Get away with to escape punishment for

The villain, who has been in the prison for three times, had robbed the bank, but he got away with it.

  1. Get in(to) to enter a car

What a careless man! Take the purse then get into the car quickly!

  1. Get off to leave a bus, train etc.

I always get off the school bus at 7.30

  1. Get on (with) to have a good relationship (with)

Melannie can get on with everybody easily.

  1. Get on (to) to enter a bus, train etc.

You must show the ticket to the conductor after getting on the train.

  1. Get out (of) to leave a car, building, room, etc.

Quick! Get out of the car or you’ll become roast corpse!

  1. Get over to recover from (an illness)

I usually need a week to get over from flu.

  1. Get up to leave your bed

What a lazy girl! She’s always getting up after 8!

  1. Give away to give something free of charge

They’ll give a bar of chocolate away if you show that today is your birthday.

  1. Give back to return something you’ve taken/borrowed

I never give the books back to the library before the due date.

  1. Give up to stop doing something you do regularly

Enough already! I give up playing video games 3 hours a day!

  1. Go away to leave a place/someone

“You are disgusting! Telling my big secret to everyone without feeling any guilty. Now, go away!”

  1. Go back (to) to return (to)

I believe that someday I will go back to meet you in the promised land.

  1. Go off to no longer be fresh

These avocadoes have already gone off! I can’t consume them or I’ll get matters with my belly.

  1. Go on to continue happening or doing something

I go on with my homework in the classroom despite being scolded by teachers.

  1. Go on to happen

Please, don’t fire me! I assure that this pathetic experience will never go on anymore in the future.

  1. Go out to stop burning

The electronic centre, which I’m used to visiting, burnt at night and didn’t go out until the firefighter came late.

  1. Go out with to be the boyfriend/girlfriend of

Matthew is going out with Katie for 3 years now, after they met on a blind date.

  1. Grow up to become older (for children)

My cats grow up fast as I give them a lot of protein and meat.

  1. Hang on to wait

Hang on, I must answer to my mother’s question first.

  1. Hang up to put clothes in a wardrobe, etc.

I can’t hang up my clothes since I don’t have any wardrobes.

  1. Hang up to put the receiver down to end a phone call

I don’t like people who hang up without saying ‘good-bye’, it sounds rude to me!

  1. Have on to wear (a piece of clothing)

The cats have cute clothes on and are ready to hang out with my dog.

  1. Hurry up to do something more quickly

If I go with my father, I won’t need to hurry up preparing the equipment for picnic since he’s such a slow person.

  1. Join in to participate, take part

This time tomorrow I will be joining in the play.

  1. Keep out to prevent from entering

You can’t step on the grass, there’s plank written “keep out!”

  1. Leave out to not include

I don’t like Stanislav and Slava, so I leave them out attending my party.

  1. Let down to disappoint

My students’ bad behaviour always let me down.

  1. Lie down to start lying (on a bed, etc.)

I’m so tired that I lie down without take my jacket down.

  1. Log off to disconnect from the Internet/a website

I don’t know how to log off from this messy website since the appearance isn’t rather user friendly.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 1)

This is the list of phrasal verbs from English exercise book “Destination B1” – Malcolm Mann and Steve Taylore-Knowles published by MacMillan. Note that I create my own sentence from each phrasal verb.

Part I

  1. Add up to find the total of

I add up all the books, which I’ve bought from the bookstore, and give the bills to my mother to get reimbursement.

  1. Blow up to explode

His inventions have been blowing up for the last 3 months and make him rich abruptly.

  1. Break down to stop working (for a machine)

The sewing machine broke down yesterday, so that the supervisor must call someone to service the machine and fix the issues to fulfill demands before the due date.

  1. Break in(to) to enter illegally

My mother-in-law’s house was broken into by a stranger when the family was not there yesterday.

  1. Bring up to take care of a child until he or she becomes an adult

Since my grandmother didn’t have any children, she brought up my mother on her own.

  1. Build up to increase

The more you practice English the more you build up your skill.

  1. Call back to ring again on the phone

You sound busy, I’ll call you back later.

  1. Call off to cancel

The huge riot calls off the concert in the square.

  1. Calm down to become/make calmer

As the cat is frightened for seeing the catastrophe, it runs up and down everywhere and is difficult to calm down.

  1. Carry on to continue

I’ll never stop carrying on my journey to success.

  1. Catch up (with) to reach the same point/level as

The less smart students find great difficulties to catch up with their friends in the classroom.

  1. Cheer up to become/make happier

Because of living in the pole, Andrey cheers up like a crazy when he’s able to see the sun.

  1. Clear up to tidy

I always clear my room up before I go to work.

  1. Come across to find something by chance

Finally I come across some difficult words, which I’ve been searching for for a long time.

  1. Come back (from) to return (from)

The husband never comes back home early after work as he always visits his hidden girlfriend first.

  1. Come on to be quicker

Since my mother wakes up late, she must come on or she’ll miss the important meeting.

  1. Come out to be published

Tizziano Ferro, a popular Italian singer, came out with his big secret, which has been buried along his successful career.

  1. Cross out to draw a line through something written

The children must cross out to answer the exercises.

  1. Cut down (on) to do less of something (smoking, etc.)

Grandpa cuts down on the numbers of cigarettes he smokes to decrease the risk of cancer.

  1. Cut off to disconnect (phone, electricity, etc.)

My electricity is cut off since I haven’t paid the bill for 2 months.

  1. Cut off to completely remove by cutting

The mango has a lot of worms! I’ve to cut off some of its parts.

  1. Do up to button/zip up a piece of clothing

You’ve to do up your clothes since it’s getting colder.

  1. Eat out to eat at a restaurant

He never eats out since he only earns $100 every month; Furthermore he can’t afford to buy basic daily needs.

  1. Fall down to trip and fall

The woman fell down yesterday when she was trying to climb the mountain and hurt her vulnerable backbone.

  1. Fall out (with) to have an argument with someone and stop being friends

It’s such a pity that I fell out with my best friend and now we stop communicating.

  1. Fill in to add information in the spaces on a form, etc.

You ought to fill this form in or you’ll miss the class.

  1. Fill up to make something completely full

My cat fills his stomach up with a lot of expensive cat food.

  1. Find out to discover information, etc.

It’s very difficult to find out the street since I’m not familiar with the area.

How to Increase Your Vocabulary

– Read what you are interested in! Then Write

– Theme

ex/ tech = obsolete, state-of-the-art (newest), update (to make newer), downgrade, cutting-edge

– Similar meaning

Increase = extend, expand, accelerate, intensify, reinforce

– Do not limit yourself to 1 word! Learn different form of the same word

ex/

beauty (n), beautify (v), beautiful (adj), beautifully (adv)

– Learn roots-suffix, prefix

ex/

root -ject => inject, eject, object, subject

– Listen to any spoken English (try ted.com)

– dictionary eng->eng + transcript (try m-w.com or oxforddictionaries.com)

– Do not use on line translator!


  1. Which of these words does not belong in the group?
    interrupt, disrupt, erupt, report, corrupt, rupture
  • disrupt
  • corrupt
  • rupture
  • report

Report is the only word that does not have the root –rupt


  1. What might be a vocabulary theme for these words?
    solar, thermal, turbine, hydroelectric, nuclear
  • cars
  • engines
  • energy
  • weapons

  1. The word amazingis an adjective. Which of the following is its verb form?
  • amazement
  • amazingly
  • to maze
  • amaze

  1. The best way to increase and maintain vocabulary is by reading and writing.
  • true
  • false

  1. Which of the following sentences best illustrates the meaning of the wordexplain?
  • To explain is to say how something works.
  • The teacher explained the process so well that everyone understood it.
  • A textbook explains the ideas.
  • I asked my friend to explain the grammar.

To explain is to make someone understand something. This sentence clearly expresses the meaning.


  1. In which of the following vocabulary groups would the word ejectfit?
  • A group for the root -ject
  • A theme group for computer actions.
  • A theme group for things a pilot does
  • All three could be possible groups.

  1. which of the following words would NOT fit in the function group for add to?
  • amplify
  • raise
  • boost
  • deconstruct

‘Deconstruct’ means to break down to smaller pieces.


  1. Which of the following adjectives does not have a verb form?
  • sure
  • final
  • heavy
  • light

ensure, finalize, lighten


  1. Words that you have added to the knowpile of cards never need to be looked at again.
  • true
  • false

Review these once in a while to make sure you don’t forget them.


  1. A word group has a function to make less. Which group fits this function?(watch out for spelling)
  • subtract, reduce, lesson, ease
  • lower, ease, lessen, calm
  • reduce, subtract, easy, lighten
  • lessen, ease, remove, light

Please lower the volume. The teacher tried to ease the tension in the room. We need to lessen the burden of the middle class. The president tried to calm the anxious nation.

War & Military Vocabulary

Chaos = big mess/big trouble

Branch
– Army => ground soldier, they have tank, they set up the basis
– Marine corps (read: marine core) => fighting soldier
– Navy => they have ship, submarine
– Air Force => they have jet, pilot

Rank (level of people in army)
– Officers (higher rank): General /admiral (top in the navy)
Colonel
Major
Captain
Lieutenant

– Enlisted (lower rank): Sergeant, Corporal, Private
POW (Prisoner of War)
KIA (Killed in action)
MIA (Missing in action)

Insignia

Weapons (arms):
– RPG (Rocket Prepelled Grenade)
– IED (Improvised Explosive Device)
– Rocket-aimed
– Missile-guided
– Mortar-aimed (it is like a big bullet), lobbed
– Bullet (rounds)
– Anti-aircraft, anti-tank
– Grenade (shrapnel = pieces of metal)
– Sanctions (economic weapon)

Boot camp (place where army get exercise)
Drill Sergeant (trainers)
Troops

Ceasefire (Stop shooting)
Truce (long creasefire)
Treaty (a contract between two countries)
UNSC (United National Security Center)

Guerilla (soliders who are not part of army) -warfare
militant (militia, a group of millitant)
ally/coalition (create a group of Nation to join together for command fight)

battle
conflict (a polite word for war)
war

offensive (when you attack)
counter- (the other side attacks back)
advance
repel (push you back)
incursion (enter the enemies territory, get inside)
onslaught destroying/killing a lot of people without pardon, raid)

boots on the ground (send soldiers into territory on the ground)
ground forces (walking in guns, knife, RPG)

Vocabulary and phrases for making presentations in English

Overviews

After you give your opening statement, you should give a brief overview of your presentation. This includes what your presentation is about, how long you will take and how you are going to handle questions.

For example, a presentation to sales staff could start like this:
“Welcome / “Hello everyone.”

Opening statement
“As you all know, this company is losing its market share. But we are being asked to increase
sales by 20 – 25%. How can we possibly increase sales in a shrinking market?”

Overview
“Today I am going to talk to you about how we can do this. My presentation will be in three parts. Firstly I am going to look at the market and the background. Then I am going to talk to you about our new products and how they fit in. Finally, I’m going to examine some selling strategies that will help us increase our sales by 20%. The presentation will probably take around 20 minutes. There will be time for questions at the end of my talk.”

Useful language for overviews

“My presentation is in three parts.”
“My presentation is divided into three main sections.”
“Firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally…”
“I’m going to…
take a look at…
talk about…
examine…
tell you something about the background…
give you some facts and figures…
fill you in on the history of…
concentrate on…
limit myself to the question of…

“Please feel free to interrupt me if you have questions.”
“There will be time for questions at the end of the presentation.”
“I’d be grateful if you could ask your questions after the presentation.”

The main body of the presentation

During your presentation, it’s a good idea to remind your audience occasionally of the benefit of what you are saying.

“As I said at the beginning…”
“This, of course, will help you (to achieve the 20% increase).”
“As you remember, we are concerned with…”
“This ties in with my original statement…”
“This relates directly to the question I put to you before…”

Keeping your audience with you

Remember that what you are saying is new to your audience. You are clear about the structure of your talk, but let your audience know when you are moving on to a new point. You can do this by saying something like “right”, or “OK”. You can also use some of the following expressions:

“I’d now like to move on to…”
“I’d like to turn to…”
“That’s all I have to say about…”
“Now I’d like to look at…”
“This leads me to my next point…”

If you are using index cards, putting the link on the cards will help you remember to keep the audience with you. In addition, by glancing at your index cards you will be pausing – this will also help your audience to realise that you are moving on to something new.

Language for using visuals

It’s important to introduce your visual to the audience. You can use the following phrases:

“This graph shows you…”
“Take a look at this…”
“If you look at this, you will see…”
“I’d like you to look at this…”
“This chart illustrates the figures…”
“This graph gives you a break down of…”

Give your audience enough time to absorb the information on the visual. Pause to allow them to look at the information and then explain why the visual is important:

“As you can see…”
“This clearly shows …”
“From this, we can understand how / why…”
“This area of the chart is interesting…”

Summarising

At the end of your presentation, you should summarise your talk and remind the audience of what you have told them:

“That brings me to the end of my presentation. I’ve talked about…”
“Well, that’s about it for now. We’ve covered…”
“So, that was our marketing strategy. In brief, we…”
“To summarise, I…”

Relate the end of your presentation to your opening statement:

“So I hope that you’re a little clearer on how we can achieve sales growth of 20%.”
“To return to the original question, we can achieve…”
“So just to round the talk off, I want to go back to the beginning when I asked you…”
“I hope that my presentation today will help you with what I said at the beginning…”

Handling questions

Thank the audience for their attention and invite questions.

“Thank you for listening – and now if there are any questions, I would be pleased to answer them.”
“That brings me to the end of my presentation. Thank you for your attention. I’d be glad to answer any questions you might have.”

It’s useful to re-word the question, as you can check that you have understood the question and you can give yourself some time to think of an answer. By asking the question again you also make sure that other people in the audience understand the question.

“Thank you. So you would like further clarification on our strategy?”
“That’s an interesting question. How are we going to get voluntary redundancy?”
“Thank you for asking. What is our plan for next year?”

After you have answered your question, check that the person who asked you is happy with the answer.

“Does this answer your question?”
“Do you follow what I am saying?”
“I hope this explains the situation for you.”
“I hope this was what you wanted to hear!”

If you don’t know the answer to a question, say you don’t know. It’s better to admit to not knowing something than to guess and maybe get it wrong. You can say something like:

“That’s an interesting question. I don’t actually know off the top of my head, but I’ll try to get back to you later with an answer.”
“I’m afraid I’m unable to answer that at the moment. Perhaps I can get back to you later.”
“Good question. I really don’t know! What do you think?”
“That’s a very good question. However, we don’t have any figures on that, so I can’t give you an accurate answer.”
“Unfortunately, I’m not the best person to answer that.”

What can you say if things go wrong?

You think you’ve lost your audience? Rephrase what you have said:

“Let me just say that in another way.”
“Perhaps I can rephrase that.”
“Put another way, this means…”
“What I mean to say is…”

Can’t remember the word?

If it’s a difficult word for you – one that you often forget, or one that you have difficulty pronouncing – you should write it on your index card. Pause briefly, look down at your index card and say the word.

Using your voice

Don’t speak in a flat monotone – this will bore your audience. By varying your speed and tone, you will be able to keep your audience’s attention. Practise emphasising key words and pause in the right places – usually in between ideas in a sentence. For example “The first strategy involves getting to know our market (pause) and finding out what they want. (pause) Customer surveys (pause) as well as staff training (pause) will help us do this.”

Don’t forget – if you speak too fast you will lose your audience!

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