Tag Archive | words

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 4)

Part IV

  1. Share out to give a part of something to a group of people

This presentation file is going to be shared out later after I finish the class.

  1. Shut up to stop talking, stop making a noise

Kids, shut up saying bad words or I’ll clean your mouths with soap.

  1. Sit down to (start to) sit

I let the grandma sits down. I can’t see her standing up in the bus.

  1. Sort out to solve a problem

I’m unable to sort this puzzle out. It’s too difficult for me.

  1. Speak up to talk more loudly so someone can hear you

Your voice is very low and I can’t hear you. Could you speak up, please!

  1. Split up to end a relationship

My bad friendship was not too good; We decided to split up.

  1. Stand up to (start to) stand

Relax your body and begin with standing up.

  1. Stay up to go to bed late

I have to cram and stay up.

  1. Take away to remove

Liz has taken the maggots away from her scalp.

  1. Take back to return something to the place it came from

It’s better for you to take the books back.

  1. Take down to remove (from a high place)

I’m too small and short to take the books down from the highest line of the shelf.

  1. Take off to leave the ground

It takes a long time for the plane to take off.

  1. Take off to remove (a piece of clothing)

Let’s take all your clothes off and swim in the river. No one can see you here.

  1. Take over to take control of (a business, etc.)

The uneducated woman takes over this company! I don’t believe it.

  1. Take up to start (a hobby, sport, etc.)

Taking up stamp collecting is a boring hobby.

  1. Throw away to put something in a rubbish bin

Can you throw this plastic away! It’s been there for 3 days and emits a smelly odor.

  1. Try on to put on (a piece of clothing) to see how it looks and if it fits

He spends an hour only to try cheap clothes on.

  1. Turn down to lower the volume of

I’m studying for the final test tomorrow. Can you turn the radio down!

  1. Turn off to stop a machine working

Turn the TV off and start studying!

  1. Turn on to start a machine working

It’s so boring, I’m trying to turn the TV on, but I realize that the electric has been cut off.

  1. Turn over to turn something so the other side is towards you

Time is over for this section, now you can turn the paper over.

  1. Turn up to increase the volume of

Hey, it’s my favorite song, turn it up!

  1. Wake up to stop being asleep

I’ve to wake up at 5 am every day.

  1. Wash up to wash plates, cups, cutlery, etc.

Kostya helps me to wash up after the big party. He’s very helpful!

  1. Watch out to be careful

Watch out! The snake is going to bite you.

  1. Work out to find the solution to a problem, etc.

I keep working out to connect my computer to the internet.

  1. Write down to write information on a piece of paper

Listen carefully and write the requirements down; It’ll not be repeated twice.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 3)

Part III

  1. Log on(to) to connect to the internet/a website

I open the new website, but I can’t log on; Maybe it’s under construction.

  1. Look after to take care of

Looking after a kitten is not an easy job.

  1. Look up to try to find information in a book, etc.

It rarely happens to me looking up unknown words in the dictionary since I’m getting used to search for information in the online dictionary.

  1. Make up to invent an explanation, excuse, etc.

What an ignorant boy! I can’t make up his unforgiveable mistakes.

  1. Move in to start living in a new house, etc.

I’m moving in Kyiv next month.

  1. Pay back to return money (to someone)

I feel ashamed to the owner of pet shop since I’ve never paid the money back that I borrowed two weeks ago.

  1. Pick up to lift something from the floor, a table, etc.

Kids, pick your toys up and start studying!

  1. Point out to tell someone important information

I point you out that I work every day; It’s the reason why I can’t meet you so often.

  1. Print out to make a paper copy of something on a computer

I seldom buy original books from e-bay. I only search for the free downloadable e-book versions and print them out; It’s much cheaper!

  1. Pull off to break by pulling

The careless dentist pulled my son’s tooth off by mistake yesterday; Now, I accuse and sconce him to pay $3.000.000

  1. Put away to return something to where it belongs

Thanks for borrowing the beautiful flowers; You don’t need to worry because  I’ve already put them away in the vase.

  1. Put back to return something to where it was

I want to put this book back; but i forget which rack it belongs to.

  1. Put down to stop holding

My girlfriend put her hand down from my arm when she came across her ex.

  1. Put off to delay to a later time

To put off is similar with to procrastinate, the words which I hate very much.

  1. Put on to gain (weight)

If I were you, i would put on. It’s terrible! I only can see bone and skin.

  1. Put on to start wearing (a piece of clothing)

Put your jackets and scarf on if you don’t want to get cold outside.

  1. Put out to make something stop burning

Unfortunately, the unexperienced firefighters couldn’t put the ferocious fire out resulting many ablaze electronics burnt like those in the hell.

  1. Put up to put something on a wall (ex. a picture)

We’re going to take a valentine’s day competition. Notice that the best love letters will be put up in the lobby.

  1. Read out to say something out loud which you are reading

If you want to remember the new vocabulary fast, read the words out.

  1. Rip up to tear into pieces

This illegal application letter should be ripped up asap to avoid fights.

  1. Rub out to remove with a rubber

The imprudent students can’t rub out his wrong answers since he’s written everything in ink.

  1. Run away (from) to escape by running

The little girl screams and runs away from a giant monster.

  1. Run out (of) to not have any left

Damn, we’re on the way to the jungle and now we run out of the fuel!

  1. Save up (for) to save money (for a specific purpose)

I’ve been saving up for 1 year for taking a vacation abroad.

  1. Send off to make a player leave a game

What a sly player! I wish the referee sent him off.

  1. Set off to start a journey

Finally I get my long holiday and I’m able to set off to explore the beauty of my country.

  1. Set up to start (a business, organization, etc.)

This unexperienced man had set up a leather company, but he failed in only 3 months.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 2)

Part II

  1. Get away with to escape punishment for

The villain, who has been in the prison for three times, had robbed the bank, but he got away with it.

  1. Get in(to) to enter a car

What a careless man! Take the purse then get into the car quickly!

  1. Get off to leave a bus, train etc.

I always get off the school bus at 7.30

  1. Get on (with) to have a good relationship (with)

Melannie can get on with everybody easily.

  1. Get on (to) to enter a bus, train etc.

You must show the ticket to the conductor after getting on the train.

  1. Get out (of) to leave a car, building, room, etc.

Quick! Get out of the car or you’ll become roast corpse!

  1. Get over to recover from (an illness)

I usually need a week to get over from flu.

  1. Get up to leave your bed

What a lazy girl! She’s always getting up after 8!

  1. Give away to give something free of charge

They’ll give a bar of chocolate away if you show that today is your birthday.

  1. Give back to return something you’ve taken/borrowed

I never give the books back to the library before the due date.

  1. Give up to stop doing something you do regularly

Enough already! I give up playing video games 3 hours a day!

  1. Go away to leave a place/someone

“You are disgusting! Telling my big secret to everyone without feeling any guilty. Now, go away!”

  1. Go back (to) to return (to)

I believe that someday I will go back to meet you in the promised land.

  1. Go off to no longer be fresh

These avocadoes have already gone off! I can’t consume them or I’ll get matters with my belly.

  1. Go on to continue happening or doing something

I go on with my homework in the classroom despite being scolded by teachers.

  1. Go on to happen

Please, don’t fire me! I assure that this pathetic experience will never go on anymore in the future.

  1. Go out to stop burning

The electronic centre, which I’m used to visiting, burnt at night and didn’t go out until the firefighter came late.

  1. Go out with to be the boyfriend/girlfriend of

Matthew is going out with Katie for 3 years now, after they met on a blind date.

  1. Grow up to become older (for children)

My cats grow up fast as I give them a lot of protein and meat.

  1. Hang on to wait

Hang on, I must answer to my mother’s question first.

  1. Hang up to put clothes in a wardrobe, etc.

I can’t hang up my clothes since I don’t have any wardrobes.

  1. Hang up to put the receiver down to end a phone call

I don’t like people who hang up without saying ‘good-bye’, it sounds rude to me!

  1. Have on to wear (a piece of clothing)

The cats have cute clothes on and are ready to hang out with my dog.

  1. Hurry up to do something more quickly

If I go with my father, I won’t need to hurry up preparing the equipment for picnic since he’s such a slow person.

  1. Join in to participate, take part

This time tomorrow I will be joining in the play.

  1. Keep out to prevent from entering

You can’t step on the grass, there’s plank written “keep out!”

  1. Leave out to not include

I don’t like Stanislav and Slava, so I leave them out attending my party.

  1. Let down to disappoint

My students’ bad behaviour always let me down.

  1. Lie down to start lying (on a bed, etc.)

I’m so tired that I lie down without take my jacket down.

  1. Log off to disconnect from the Internet/a website

I don’t know how to log off from this messy website since the appearance isn’t rather user friendly.

English Phrasal Verbs (Part 1)

This is the list of phrasal verbs from English exercise book “Destination B1” – Malcolm Mann and Steve Taylore-Knowles published by MacMillan. Note that I create my own sentence from each phrasal verb.

Part I

  1. Add up to find the total of

I add up all the books, which I’ve bought from the bookstore, and give the bills to my mother to get reimbursement.

  1. Blow up to explode

His inventions have been blowing up for the last 3 months and make him rich abruptly.

  1. Break down to stop working (for a machine)

The sewing machine broke down yesterday, so that the supervisor must call someone to service the machine and fix the issues to fulfill demands before the due date.

  1. Break in(to) to enter illegally

My mother-in-law’s house was broken into by a stranger when the family was not there yesterday.

  1. Bring up to take care of a child until he or she becomes an adult

Since my grandmother didn’t have any children, she brought up my mother on her own.

  1. Build up to increase

The more you practice English the more you build up your skill.

  1. Call back to ring again on the phone

You sound busy, I’ll call you back later.

  1. Call off to cancel

The huge riot calls off the concert in the square.

  1. Calm down to become/make calmer

As the cat is frightened for seeing the catastrophe, it runs up and down everywhere and is difficult to calm down.

  1. Carry on to continue

I’ll never stop carrying on my journey to success.

  1. Catch up (with) to reach the same point/level as

The less smart students find great difficulties to catch up with their friends in the classroom.

  1. Cheer up to become/make happier

Because of living in the pole, Andrey cheers up like a crazy when he’s able to see the sun.

  1. Clear up to tidy

I always clear my room up before I go to work.

  1. Come across to find something by chance

Finally I come across some difficult words, which I’ve been searching for for a long time.

  1. Come back (from) to return (from)

The husband never comes back home early after work as he always visits his hidden girlfriend first.

  1. Come on to be quicker

Since my mother wakes up late, she must come on or she’ll miss the important meeting.

  1. Come out to be published

Tizziano Ferro, a popular Italian singer, came out with his big secret, which has been buried along his successful career.

  1. Cross out to draw a line through something written

The children must cross out to answer the exercises.

  1. Cut down (on) to do less of something (smoking, etc.)

Grandpa cuts down on the numbers of cigarettes he smokes to decrease the risk of cancer.

  1. Cut off to disconnect (phone, electricity, etc.)

My electricity is cut off since I haven’t paid the bill for 2 months.

  1. Cut off to completely remove by cutting

The mango has a lot of worms! I’ve to cut off some of its parts.

  1. Do up to button/zip up a piece of clothing

You’ve to do up your clothes since it’s getting colder.

  1. Eat out to eat at a restaurant

He never eats out since he only earns $100 every month; Furthermore he can’t afford to buy basic daily needs.

  1. Fall down to trip and fall

The woman fell down yesterday when she was trying to climb the mountain and hurt her vulnerable backbone.

  1. Fall out (with) to have an argument with someone and stop being friends

It’s such a pity that I fell out with my best friend and now we stop communicating.

  1. Fill in to add information in the spaces on a form, etc.

You ought to fill this form in or you’ll miss the class.

  1. Fill up to make something completely full

My cat fills his stomach up with a lot of expensive cat food.

  1. Find out to discover information, etc.

It’s very difficult to find out the street since I’m not familiar with the area.

Inversion

 

Inversion

Inversion => Change the order of something

Using with negative expressions (Verb – Subject – Verb):
Not only did he win, but he also broke the record
Under no circumtances should you call her (=> in no situation, should you call)
The mayor of Toronto refused to resign, nor do we expect him to

In a very formal style (you can also find these in essays)
Should you need any help, don’t hesitate to call (=>Should = if [more formal])
Had I known you were coming (If I had known you were coming…)

Comparatives:
John speaks Chinese, as does Lucy
More impostant than love is money

Some expressions:
Here comes Jane.
Man, is it cold out! (=> the function is only to emphasize)
Are you sure? (notice that in all question sentences, inversion happens)

EXERCISE
1. “Had I not fallen asleep before the end of the movie, I’d have found out who killed the Minister.”
This sentence can be rewritten as:
a) If I didn’t fall asleep before the end of the movie, I will find out who killed the Minister.
b) If I hadn’t fallen asleep before the end of the movie, I’d have found out who killed the Minister.
c) If I’d known who killed the Minister, I would not have fallen asleep near the end of the movie.
d) I know who killed the Minister. It was the butler.

2. Complete the following sentence:
You do not have to say anything to the police, nor_______________
a) are you required to sign any documents.
b) you are required to sign any documents.
c) you have to sign anything.

3. Not only _____________ pass the test, but he got the highest mark in the class!
a) Joe did
b) Joe didn’t
c) didn’t Joe
d) did Joe

4. What is the subject of the following sentence?
“Here comes Michael.”
a) Here
b) comes
c) Michael

5. Which of the following sentences uses inversion to express disbelief, shock, or strong emotion?
a) He is a such a man!
b) Man, is he brave!
c) He is a brave man.
d) Is he brave?

6. “More important than your application will be your interview.”
What does this sentence mean?
a) Your application will be more important than your interview.
b) Your interview will be more important than your application.
c) More importantly, your application will then be your interview.

7. Under no circumstances _________ reach your hand out of the bus.
a) you can
b) you shouldn’t
c) should you
d) shoulder you

8. “Should you need some advice, call me.”
This sentence can be rewritten as:
a) Call me if you need some advice.
b) If you call me, I’ll advise you.
c) Should you call me for advice?
d) Take my advice, call me.

9. Not only __________ watch the lesson, but you did the quiz as well!
a) you did
b) you don’t
c) did you
d) have you

Check your answer: b a d c b b c a c

Petroleum Alternatives (04)

Bold Words are target Words

  Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
1 constraint constraint
2 contaminate contamination; contaminant
3 deplete depletion
4 dispose of disposal disposable
5 element elemental elementally
6 emit emission
7 extinction extinct
8 reserve reservoir
9 shrink shrinkage shrinkable
10 stable stability stable stably

 

Definitions and Samples

  1. Constraint n. Something that restricts something or someone

The major constraint of students who live in the developing country is they lack to get a part-time job to pay their fees.

  1. Contamination n. Being dangerous, dirty, or impure by adding something harmful or undesirable to it

The children’s behavior have been contaminated by their uneducated father.

plastic-waterpollution.jpg

Contamination’s everywhere & harms our earth

  1. Deplete v. To greatly reduce the amount of something

Illegal activities such as logging and mining absolutely deplete natural resources.

  1. Dispose of [phrasal verb] v. To get rid of something

Please, dispose of your cigarette into the basket bin.

  1. Elementally adv. In terms of elements

Elementally, concrete and soil are not alike.

  1. Emission n. The act of sending out of something (such as energy or gas)

Leaky emission of soil in Java by the irresponsible government has damaged adjacent local houses.

coal-power-station_1861404b.jpg

Emissions from a coal’s factory

  1. Extinction n. Completely die out

Modern lifestyle has caused the extinction of many old traditions.

Various_dinosaurs.png

Dinosaurs are good example of an extinction caused by nature

  1. Reservoir n. An artificial lake used to store a large supply of water for use in people’s homes

Dry season afflicts many reservoirs in my city.

2.jpg

Nowadays, a reservoir in my city for its beauty becomes an aim of many local tourists to visit

  1. Shrink v. Becoming smaller in amount, size, or value

Don’t boil water too much or it may shrink.

  1. Stable adj. Not easily changed because of being in a good state or condition

Her continuously work has made her life more stable than before.

How to Increase Your Vocabulary

– Read what you are interested in! Then Write

– Theme

ex/ tech = obsolete, state-of-the-art (newest), update (to make newer), downgrade, cutting-edge

– Similar meaning

Increase = extend, expand, accelerate, intensify, reinforce

– Do not limit yourself to 1 word! Learn different form of the same word

ex/

beauty (n), beautify (v), beautiful (adj), beautifully (adv)

– Learn roots-suffix, prefix

ex/

root -ject => inject, eject, object, subject

– Listen to any spoken English (try ted.com)

– dictionary eng->eng + transcript (try m-w.com or oxforddictionaries.com)

– Do not use on line translator!


  1. Which of these words does not belong in the group?
    interrupt, disrupt, erupt, report, corrupt, rupture
  • disrupt
  • corrupt
  • rupture
  • report

Report is the only word that does not have the root –rupt


  1. What might be a vocabulary theme for these words?
    solar, thermal, turbine, hydroelectric, nuclear
  • cars
  • engines
  • energy
  • weapons

  1. The word amazingis an adjective. Which of the following is its verb form?
  • amazement
  • amazingly
  • to maze
  • amaze

  1. The best way to increase and maintain vocabulary is by reading and writing.
  • true
  • false

  1. Which of the following sentences best illustrates the meaning of the wordexplain?
  • To explain is to say how something works.
  • The teacher explained the process so well that everyone understood it.
  • A textbook explains the ideas.
  • I asked my friend to explain the grammar.

To explain is to make someone understand something. This sentence clearly expresses the meaning.


  1. In which of the following vocabulary groups would the word ejectfit?
  • A group for the root -ject
  • A theme group for computer actions.
  • A theme group for things a pilot does
  • All three could be possible groups.

  1. which of the following words would NOT fit in the function group for add to?
  • amplify
  • raise
  • boost
  • deconstruct

‘Deconstruct’ means to break down to smaller pieces.


  1. Which of the following adjectives does not have a verb form?
  • sure
  • final
  • heavy
  • light

ensure, finalize, lighten


  1. Words that you have added to the knowpile of cards never need to be looked at again.
  • true
  • false

Review these once in a while to make sure you don’t forget them.


  1. A word group has a function to make less. Which group fits this function?(watch out for spelling)
  • subtract, reduce, lesson, ease
  • lower, ease, lessen, calm
  • reduce, subtract, easy, lighten
  • lessen, ease, remove, light

Please lower the volume. The teacher tried to ease the tension in the room. We need to lessen the burden of the middle class. The president tried to calm the anxious nation.